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  • Eyjolfsdottir, H., et al. (författare)
  • Targeted delivery of nerve growth factor to the cholinergic basal forebrain of Alzheimer's disease patients: application of a second-generation encapsulated cell biodelivery device
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Targeted delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) has emerged as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to its regenerative effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. This hypothesis has been tested in patients with AD using encapsulated cell biodelivery of NGF (NGF-ECB) in a first-in-human study. We report our results from a third-dose cohort of patients receiving second-generation NGF-ECB implants with improved NGF secretion. Methods: Four patients with mild to moderate AD were recruited to participate in an open-label, phase Ib dose escalation study with a 6-month duration. Each patient underwent stereotactic implant surgery with four NGF-ECB implants targeted at the cholinergic basal forebrain. The NGF secretion of the second-generation implants was improved by using the Sleeping Beauty transposon gene expression technology and an improved three-dimensional internal scaffolding, resulting in production of about 10 ng NGF/device/day. Results: All patients underwent successful implant procedures without complications, and all patients completed the study, including implant removal after 6 months. Upon removal, 13 of 16 implants released NGF, 8 implants released NGF at the same rate or higher than before the implant procedure, and 3 implants failed to release detectable amounts of NGF. Of 16 adverse events, none was NGF-, or implant-related. Changes from baseline values of cholinergic markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlated with cortical nicotinic receptor expression and Mini Mental State Examination score. Levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL) protein increased in CSF after NGF-ECB implant, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) remained stable. Conclusions: The data derived from this patient cohort demonstrate the safety and tolerability of sustained NGF release by a second-generation NGF-ECB implant to the basal forebrain, with uneventful surgical implant and removal of NGF-ECB implants in a new dosing cohort of four patients with AD.
  • Frisoni, G. B., et al. (författare)
  • Strategic roadmap for an early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on biomarkers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Publishing Group. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 16:8, s. 661-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can be improved by the use of biological measures. Biomarkers of functional impairment, neuronal loss, and protein deposition that can be assessed by neuroimaging (ie, MRI and PET) or CSF analysis are increasingly being used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease in research studies and specialist clinical settings. However, the validation of the clinical usefulness of these biomarkers is incomplete, and that is hampering reimbursement for these tests by health insurance providers, their widespread clinical implementation, and improvements in quality of health care. We have developed a strategic five-phase roadmap to foster the clinical validation of biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease, adapted from the approach for cancer biomarkers. Sufficient evidence of analytical validity (phase 1 of a structured framework adapted from oncology) is available for all biomarkers, but their clinical validity (phases 2 and 3) and clinical utility (phases 4 and 5) are incomplete. To complete these phases, research priorities include the standardisation of the readout of these assays and thresholds for normality, the evaluation of their performance in detecting early disease, the development of diagnostic algorithms comprising combinations of biomarkers, and the development of clinical guidelines for the use of biomarkers in qualified memory clinics.
  • Ashizawa, T., et al. (författare)
  • Consensus-based care recommendations for adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology-Clinical Practice. - 2163-0402. ; 8:6, s. 507-520
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose of review Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a severe, progressive genetic disease that affects between 1 in 3,000 and 8,000 individuals globally. No evidence-based guideline exists to inform the care of these patients, and most do not have access to multidisciplinary care centers staffed by experienced professionals, creating a clinical care deficit. Recent findings The Myotonic Dystrophy Foundation (MDF) recruited 66 international clinicians experienced in DM1 patient care to develop consensus-based care recommendations. MDF created a 2-step methodology for the project using elements of the Single Text Procedure and the Nominal Group Technique. The process generated a 4-page Quick Reference Guide and a comprehensive, 55-page document that provides clinical care recommendations for 19 discrete body systems and/or care considerations. The resulting recommendations are intended to help standardize and elevate care for this patient population and reduce variability in clinical trial and study environments.
  • Religa, D., et al. (författare)
  • SveDem, the Swedish Dementia Registry - A tool for improving the quality of diagnostics, treatment and care of dementia patients in clinical practice
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 10:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem) was developed with the aim to improve the quality of diagnostic work-up, treatment and care of patients with dementia disorders in Sweden. Methods: SveDem is an internet based quality registry where several indicators can be followed over time. It includes information about the diagnostic work-up, medical treatment and community support (www.svedem.se). The patients are diagnosed and followed-up yearly in specialist units, primary care centres or in nursing homes. Results: The database was initiated in May 2007 and covers almost all of Sweden. There were 28 722 patients registered with a mean age of 79.3 years during 2007-2012. Each participating unit obtains continuous online statistics from its own registrations and they can be compared with regional and national data. A report from SveDem is published yearly to inform medical and care professionals as well as political and administrative decision-makers about the current quality of diagnostics, treatment and care of patients with dementia disorders in Sweden. Conclusion: SveDem provides knowledge about current dementia care in Sweden and serves as a framework for ensuring the quality of diagnostics, treatment and care across the country. It also reflects changes in quality dementia care over time. Data from SveDem can be used to further develop the national guidelines for dementia and to generate new research hypotheses.
  • Besga, A., et al. (författare)
  • Differences in brain cholesterol metabolism and insulin in two subgroups of patients with different CSF biomarkers but similar white matter lesions suggest different pathogenic mechanisms
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - 0304-3940 .- 1872-7972. ; 510:2, s. 121-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigate possible associations of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) with the metabolism of cholesterol and insulin in two subgroups of patients with memory complaints and different CSF A beta 42 and CSF tau levels. 59 patients from the memory clinic at Karolinska Hospital were included. Degree of WMHs was rated using the ARWMC scale and the following biomarkers were measured in CSF and plasma: insulin, cholesterol, lanosterol, lathosterol, and oxidized cholesterol metabolites. The WMHs in CSF control-like group correlated with increased brain cholesterol synthesis and reduced efflux of oxysterols and insulin in CSF. In the CSF AD-like group, the WMHs correlated with increased peripheral cholesterol metabolism. Despite having similar appearance on FLAIR images, the pathogenic mechanisms of WMHS are likely to be different in the two groups investigated.
  • Visser, P. J., et al. (författare)
  • Development of screening guidelines and clinical criteria for predementia Alzheimer's disease
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology. - : Karger. - 1423-0208. ; 30:4, s. 254-265
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is an urgent need to identify subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the predementia phase, but validated diagnostic approaches are currently lacking. In this paper, we present the background, design and methods of a study, which aims to develop clinical criteria for predementia AD. We also present baseline characteristics of the subjects included. The study was part of the multicentre DESCRIPA project, which is being conducted within the network of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium. Methods: Clinical criteria will be based on a prospective cohort study of non-demented subjects older than 55 years and referred to a memory clinic. At baseline, a number of markers and risk factors for AD were collected, including demographic variables, measures of performance in activities of daily living, cognitive, neuroimaging and genetic markers, and serum and cerebrospinal fluid markers. Subjects will be reassessed annually for 2 - 3 years, and we will evaluate which combination of variables best predicts AD-type dementia at follow-up. Results: Between 2003 and 2005, 881 subjects were included from 20 memory clinics. Subjects were on average 70.3 years old, and had 10.4 years of education. The average score on the Mini-Mental State Examination was 27.4.
  • Haytural, Hazal, et al. (författare)
  • Insights into the changes in the proteome of Alzheimer disease elucidated by a meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2052-4463. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a powerful tool to explore pathogenic changes of a disease in an unbiased manner and has been used extensively in Alzheimer disease (AD) research. Here, by performing a meta-analysis of high-quality proteomic studies, we address which pathological changes are observed consistently and therefore most likely are of great importance for AD pathogenesis. We retrieved datasets, comprising a total of 21,588 distinct proteins identified across 857 postmortem human samples, from ten studies using labeled or label-free MS approaches. Our meta-analysis findings showed significant alterations of 757 and 1,195 proteins in AD in the labeled and label-free datasets, respectively. Only 33 proteins, some of which were associated with synaptic signaling, had the same directional change across the individual studies. However, despite alterations in individual proteins being different between the labeled and the label-free datasets, several pathways related to synaptic signaling, oxidative phosphorylation, immune response and extracellular matrix were commonly dysregulated in AD. These pathways represent robust changes in the human AD brain and warrant further investigation.
  • Iacono, D., et al. (författare)
  • Neuropathologic Assessment of Dementia Markers in Identical and Fraternal Twins
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Brain Pathology. - 1015-6305 .- 1750-3639. ; 24:4, s. 317-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twin studies are an incomparable source of investigation to shed light on genetic and non-genetic components of neurodegenerative diseases, as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Detailed clinicopathologic correlations using twin longitudinal data and post-mortem examinations are mostly missing. We describe clinical and pathologic findings of seven monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Our findings show good agreement between clinical and pathologic diagnoses in the majority of the twin pairs, with greater neuropathologic concordance in MZ than DZ twins. Greater neuropathologic concordance was found for -amyloid than tau pathology within the pairs. ApoE4 was associated with higher -amyloid and earlier dementia onset, and importantly, higher frequency of other co-occurring brain pathologies, regardless of the zygosity. Dementia onset, dementia duration, difference between twins in age at dementia onset and at death, did not correlate with AD pathology. These clinicopathologic correlations of older identical and fraternal twins support the relevance of genetic factors in AD, but not their sufficiency to determine the pathology, and consequently the disease, even in monozygotic twins. It is the interaction among genetic and non-genetic risks which plays a major role in influencing, or probably determining, the degeneration of those brain circuits associated with pathology and cognitive deficits in AD.
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