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1.
  • Dennis, Joe, et al. (författare)
  • Rare germline copy number variants (CNVs) and breast cancer risk
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - : NATURE PORTFOLIO. - 2399-3642. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Germline copy number variants (CNVs) are pervasive in the human genome but potential disease associations with rare CNVs have not been comprehensively assessed in large datasets. We analysed rare CNVs in genes and non-coding regions for 86,788 breast cancer cases and 76,122 controls of European ancestry with genome-wide array data. Gene burden tests detected the strongest association for deletions in BRCA1 (P = 3.7E-18). Nine other genes were associated with a p-value < 0.01 including known susceptibility genes CHEK2 (P = 0.0008), ATM (P = 0.002) and BRCA2 (P = 0.008). Outside the known genes we detected associations with p-values < 0.001 for either overall or subtype-specific breast cancer at nine deletion regions and four duplication regions. Three of the deletion regions were in established common susceptibility loci. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide analysis of rare CNVs in a large breast cancer case-control dataset. We detected associations with exonic deletions in established breast cancer susceptibility genes. We also detected suggestive associations with non-coding CNVs in known and novel loci with large effects sizes. Larger sample sizes will be required to reach robust levels of statistical significance. Dennis et al. investigate potential breast cancer associations with rare germline copy number variants (CNVs) by conducting a genome-wide analysis in a large breast cancer case-control dataset. The authors detected associations with exonic deletions in established breast cancer susceptibility genes and suggestive associations for a number of non-coding CNVs.
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2.
  • Larsson, Susanna C, et al. (författare)
  • Association of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I in middle-aged and elderly men
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 81:5, s. 1163-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been implicated in several chronic diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis.OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess whether intakes of total energy, alcohol, vitamins, minerals, and foods rich in protein and minerals (including red meat, fish and seafood, poultry, and milk) are associated with serum IGF-I concentrations in middle-aged and elderly men.DESIGN: We measured serum IGF-I concentrations in 226 free-living healthy men aged 42-76 y. The average of fourteen 24-h dietary telephone interviews performed over 1 y was used to estimate long-term dietary intake.RESULTS: We observed statistically significant positive associations between intakes of protein (P for trend = 0.001) and zinc (P for trend = 0.002) and serum IGF-I concentrations after adjusting for age. The difference in mean IGF-I concentrations for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of intake was approximately 17% (162 microg/L compared with 139 microg/L) for protein and approximately 16% (166 microg/L compared with 143 microg/L) for zinc. Consumption of red meat (P for trend = 0.05) and fish and seafood (P for trend = 0.07) was modestly positively associated with IGF-I concentrations. Other dietary factors were not associated with IGF-I concentrations.CONCLUSION: In this population of healthy well-nourished men, greater dietary intakes of protein, zinc, red meat, and fish and seafood were associated with higher IGF-I concentrations.
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3.
  • Zhan, Haoyu, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 52:6, s. 572-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide analysis identifies 32 loci associated with breast cancer susceptibility, accounting for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype(1-3). To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 x 10(-8)), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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4.
  • Adami, Hans-Olov, et al. (författare)
  • The aetiology and pathogenesis of human breast cancer
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Mutation research. - 0027-5107 .- 1873-135X. ; 333:1-2, s. 29-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whilst investigators have clearly shown that non-hereditary factors dominate the aetiology of human breast cancer, they have failed to identify quantitatively important causes, and prospects for prevention remain indeed limited. However, progress in epidemiological and basic research has taken place during the last few years. Current evidence suggests that breast cancer may be affected by the intra-uterine environment, that exposures during adolescence are particularly important, and that pregnancy has a dual effect on breast cancer risk: an early increase followed by long-term protection. Great variation exists in the structural development of the breast ductal system already in the newborn--and by inference in utero--and a pregnancy induces permanent structural changes in the mammary gland. We suggest that these observations fit into an aetiological model with the following key components: (1) breast cancer risk depends on the number of cells at risk, the susceptibility of individual cells to malignant transformation, and on the degree of cellular proliferation, notably cells which can act as founders of breast cancer; (2) the number of target cells is determined by the hormonal environment mainly early in life, perhaps already in utero; (3) in adult life, hormones which are non-genotoxic, increase breast cancer risk by increasing selective cell proliferation and thus number of target cells and the risk of retention of spontaneous somatic mutations; (4) while a pregnancy stimulates the growth of already malignant cells or cells close to malignant transformation (and thereby entails a short-term risk increase) the dominating long-term protection occurs due to permanent structural changes, terminal differentiation and perhaps decreased cell proliferation and carcinogen-binding in combination.
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5.
  • Adams, Charleen, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers of Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer in the ProtecT Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.
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6.
  • Ahearn, Thomas U., et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in breast cancer risk loci predispose to distinct tumor subtypes
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : Springer Nature. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 24:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear.MethodsAmong 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes.ResultsEighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions.ConclusionThis report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
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7.
  • Ahmed, Hanna N., et al. (författare)
  • Coffee consumption and risk of heart failure in men : An analysis from the Cohort of Swedish Men
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 158:4, s. 667-672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A previous study found that consuming 5 or more cups of coffee per day was associated with increased incidence of heart failure (HF). We sought to evaluate this association in a larger population. Methods We measured coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaires among 37,315 men without history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HE They were observed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, until December 3 1, 2006, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause of death registries. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, dietary, and demographic factors were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results For 9 years of follow-up, 784 men experienced an HF event. Compared to men who drank! l cup of coffee per day (unadjusted rate 29.9 HF events/ 10,000 person-years), RR were 0.87 (95% CI 0.69-1.11, unadjusted rate 29.2/10,000 person-years) for 2 cups/d, 0.89 (95% CI 0.70-1.14, unadjusted rate 25.1/10,000 person-years) for 3 cups/d, 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.15, unadjusted rate 25.0/10,000 person-years) for 4 cups/d, and 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.15, unadjusted rate 18.1/10,000 person-years) for >= 5 cups/d (P for trend in RR = .61). Conclusions This study did not support the hypothesis that high coffee consumption is associated with increased rates of HF hospitalization or mortality. (Am Heart J 2009;158:667-72.)
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8.
  • Akesson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Combined effect of low-risk dietary and lifestyle behaviors in primary prevention of myocardial infarction in women
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Nutr Epidemiol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pediat, Boston, MA 02118 USA. : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 0003-9926 .- 1538-3679. ; 167:19, s. 2122-2127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Limited data are available on the benefit of combining healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors in the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) in women. Methods: We used factor analysis to identify a lowrisk behavior - based dietary pattern in 24 444 postmenopausal women from the population- based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort who were free of diagnosed cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus at baseline (September 15, 1997). We also defined 3 low- risk lifestyle factors: nonsmoking, waist- hip ratio less than the 75th percentile (< 0.85), and being physically active (at least 40 minutes of daily walking or bicycling and 1 hour of weekly exercise). Results: During 6.2 years (151 434 person- years) of followup, we ascertained 308 cases of primary MI. Two major identified dietary patterns, "healthy" and "alcohol," were significantly associated with decreased risk of MI. The low- risk diet (high scores for the healthy dietary pattern) characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish, and legumes, in combination with moderate alcohol consumption (>= 5 g of alcohol per day), along with the 3 low-risk lifestyle behaviors, was associated with 92% decreased risk (95% confidence interval, 72%- 98%) compared with findings in women without any low-risk diet and lifestyle factors. This combination of healthy behaviors, present in 5%, may prevent 77% of MIs in the study population. Conclusion: Most MIs in women may be preventable by consuming a healthy diet and moderate amounts of alcohol, being physically active, not smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight.
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9.
  • Akesson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of heart failure - A population-based prospective cohort study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 126, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on heart failure (HF) may be modified by contaminants in fish. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of particular concern as they have been associated with well-established risk factors of HF, but current data are limited. Objectives: We aimed to assess the association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of HF, accounting for dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids. Design: We used the prospective population-based research structure SIMPLER (previously the Swedish Mammography Cohort and Cohort of Swedish Men) comprising 32,952 women and 36,546 men, free from cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes at baseline in 1997. Validated estimates of dietary PCBs and long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident cases of HF were ascertained through register linkage. Results: During an average of 12 years of follow-up, we ascertained 2736 and 3128 incident cases of HF in women and men, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted models, mutually adjusted for PCBs and EPA-DHA, the relative risk (RR) for dietary PCB exposure was 1.48 (95% CI 1.12-1.96) in women and 1.42 (95% CI 1.08-1.86) in men, comparing extreme quintiles. Corresponding RRs for EPA-DHA intake were 0.71 (95% CI 0.54-0.93) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.63-1.07), respectively. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to PCBs was associated with an increased risk of HF in both women and men. EPA-DHA intake was associated with a lower risk of HF in women, with a similar tendency in men.
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10.
  • Akesson, Agneta, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term dietary cadmium intake and postmenopausal endometrial cancer incidence : A population-based prospective cohort study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 68:15, s. 6435-6441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental pollutants mimicking the effects of estrogen are suggested to contribute to the high incidence of hormone-related cancers, but supporting data are sparse. A potent estrogen-like activity of the pollutant cadmium, mediated via the estrogen receptor-alpha, has been shown in vivo. We prospectively examined the association between cadmium exposure and incidence of postmenopausal endometrial cancer. The Swedish Mammography Cohort is a population-based prospective cohort of 30,210 postmenopausal women free of cancer diagnose at baseline (1987) and who completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline and in 1997. We estimated the dietary cadmium intake based on the questionnaire data and the cadmium content in all foods. During 16.0 years (484,274 person-years) of follow-up between the baseline and mid-2006, we ascertained 378 incident cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The average estimated dietary cadmium intake was 15 mu g/day (80% from cereals and vegetables). Cadmium intake was statistically significantly associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer in all women; the multivariate relative risk (1111) was 1.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.86; P-trend = 0.019], comparing highest tertile versus lowest. Among never-smoking women with body mass index (BMI) of <27 kg/m(2), the RR was 1.86 (95% CI, 1.13-3.08; P-trend = 0.009). We observed a 2.9-fold increased risk (95% CI, 1.05-7.79) associated with long-term cadmium intake consistently above the median at both baseline 1987 and in 1997 in never-smoking women with low bioavailable estrogen (BMI of <27 kg/m(2) and nonusers of postmenopausal hormones). Our results support the hypothesis that cadmium may exert estrogenic effects and thereby increase the risk of hormone-related cancers.
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