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Sökning: WFRF:(Wszolek Zbigniew K)

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  • Fiesel, Fabienne C., et al. (författare)
  • Substitution of PINK1 Gly411 modulates substrate receptivity and turnover
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8627 .- 1554-8635.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ubiquitin (Ub) kinase-ligase pair PINK1-PRKN mediates the degradation of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy/autophagy (mitophagy). PINK1 surveils mitochondria and upon stress accumulates on the mitochondrial surface where it phosphorylates serine 65 of Ub to activate PRKN and to drive mitochondrial turnover. While loss of either PINK1 or PRKN is genetically linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and activating the pathway seems to have great therapeutic potential, there is no formal proof that stimulation of mitophagy is always beneficial. Here we used biochemical and cell biological methods to study single nucleotide variants in the activation loop of PINK1 to modulate the enzymatic function of this kinase. Structural modeling and in vitro kinase assays were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of the PINK1 variants. In contrast to the PD-linked PINK1G411S mutation that diminishes Ub kinase activity, we found that the PINK1G411A variant significantly boosted Ub phosphorylation beyond levels of PINK1 wild type. This resulted in augmented PRKN activation, mitophagy rates and increased viability after mitochondrial stress in midbrain-derived, gene-edited neurons. Mechanistically, the G411A variant stabilizes the kinase fold of PINK1 and transforms Ub to adopt the preferred, C-terminally retracted conformation for improved substrate turnover. In summary, we identify a critical role of residue 411 for substrate receptivity that may now be exploited for drug discovery to increase the enzymatic function of PINK1. The genetic substitution of Gly411 to Ala increases mitophagy and may be useful to confirm neuroprotection in vivo and might serve as a critical positive control during therapeutic development. Abbreviations: ATP: adenosine triphosphate; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone; Ub-CR: ubiquitin with C-terminally retracted tail; CTD: C-terminal domain (of PINK1); ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HCI: high-content imaging; IB: immunoblot; IF: immunofluorescence; NPC: neuronal precursor cells; MDS: molecular dynamics simulation; PD: Parkinson disease; p-S65-Ub: ubiquitin phosphorylated at Ser65; RMSF: root mean scare fluctuation; TOMM: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane; TVLN: ubiquitin with T66V and L67N mutation, mimics Ub-CR; Ub: ubiquitin; WT: wild-type.
  • Heckman, Michael G., et al. (författare)
  • Population-specific Frequencies for LRRK2 Susceptibility Variants in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) Consortium
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0885-3185. ; 28:12, s. 1740-1744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundVariants within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene are recognized as the most frequent genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 variation related to disease susceptibility displays many features that reflect the nature of complex, late-onset sporadic disorders like Parkinson's disease. MethodsThe Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium recently performed the largest genetic association study for variants in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene across 23 different sites in 15 countries. ResultsHerein, we detail the allele frequencies for the novel risk factors (p.A419V and p.M1646T) and the protective haplotype (p.N551K-R1398H-K1423K) nominated in the original publication. Simple population allele frequencies not only can provide insight into the clinical relevance of specific variants but also can help genetically define patient groups. ConclusionsEstablishing individual patient-based genomic susceptibility profiles that incorporate both risk factors and protective factors will determine future diagnostic and treatment strategies. (c) 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
  • Ross, Owen A., et al. (författare)
  • Association of LRRK2 exonic variants with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease: a case-control study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Publishing Group. - 1474-4465. ; 10:10, s. 898-908
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) harbours highly penetrant mutations that are linked to familial parkinsonism. However, the extent of its polymorphic variability in relation to risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been assessed systematically. We therefore assessed the frequency of LRRK2 exonic variants in individuals with and without PD, to investigate the role of the variants in PD susceptibility. Methods LRRK2 was genotyped in patients with PD and controls from three series (white, Asian, and Arab-Berber) from sites participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium. Genotyping was done for exonic variants of LRRK2 that were identified through searches of literature and the personal communications of consortium members. Associations with PD were assessed by use of logistic regression models. For variants that had a minor allele frequency of 0.5% or greater, single variant associations were assessed, whereas for rarer variants information was collapsed across variants. Findings 121 exonic LRRK2 variants were assessed in 15 540 individuals: 6995 white patients with PD and 5595 controls, 1376 Asian patients and 962 controls, and 240 Arab-Berber patients and 372 controls. After exclusion of carriers of known pathogenic mutations, new independent risk associations were identified for polymorphic variants in white individuals (M1646T, odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.15-1.78; p=0.0012) and Asian individuals (A419V, 2.27, 1.35-3.83; p=0.0011). A protective haplotype (N551K-R1398H-K1423K) was noted at a frequency greater than 5% in the white and Asian series, with a similar finding in the Arab-Berber series (combined odds ratio 0.82, 0.72-0.94; p=0.0043). Of the two previously reported Asian risk variants, G2385R was associated with disease (1.73, 1.20-2.49; p=0.0026), but no association was noted for R1628P (0.62, 0.36-1.07; p=0.087). In the Arab-Berber series, Y2189C showed potential evidence of risk association with PD (4.48, 133-15.09; p=0.012). Interpretation The results for LRRK2 show that several rare and common genetic variants in the same gene can have independent effects on disease risk. LRRK2, and the pathway in which it functions, is important in the cause and pathogenesis of PD in a greater proportion of patients with this disease than previously believed. These results will help discriminate those patients who will benefit most from therapies targeted at LRRK2 pathogenic activity. Funding Michael J Fox Foundation and National Institutes of Health.
  • Chung, Sun Ju, et al. (författare)
  • Alpha-Synuclein Repeat Variants and Survival in Parkinson's Disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0885-3185. ; 29:8, s. 1053-1057
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To determine whether alpha-synuclein dinucleotide repeat (REP1) genotypes are associated with survival in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Investigators from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium provided REP1 genotypes and baseline and follow-up clinical data for cases. The primary outcome was time to death. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of REP1 genotypes with survival. Results: Twenty-one sites contributed data for 6,154 cases. There was no significant association between alpha-synuclein REP1 genotypes and survival in PD. However, there was a significant association between REP1 genotypes and age at onset of PD (hazard ratio: 1.06; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.10; P value = 0.01). Conclusions: In our large consortium study, alpha-synuclein REP1 genotypes were not associated with survival in PD. Further studies of alpha-synuclein's role in disease progression and long-term outcomes are needed. (C) 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
  • Elbaz, Alexis, et al. (författare)
  • Independent and Joint Effects of the MAPT and SNCA Genes in Parkinson Disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1531-8249 .- 0364-5134. ; 69:5, s. 778-792
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We studied the independent and joint effects of the genes encoding alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) in Parkinson disease (PD) as part of a large meta-analysis of individual data from case-control studies participating in the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium. Methods: Participants of Caucasian ancestry were genotyped for a total of 4 SNCA (rs2583988, rs181489, rs356219, rs11931074) and 2 MAPT (rs1052553, rs242557) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). Individual and joint effects of SNCA and MAPT SNPs were investigated using fixed- and random-effects logistic regression models. Interactions were studied on both a multiplicative and an additive scale, and using a case-control and case-only approach. Results: Fifteen GEO-PD sites contributed a total of 5,302 cases and 4,161 controls. All 4 SNCA SNPs and the MAPT H1-haplotype-defining SNP (rs1052553) displayed a highly significant marginal association with PD at the significance level adjusted for multiple comparisons. For SNCA, the strongest associations were observed for SNPs located at the 30 end of the gene. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between any of the 4 SNCA SNPs and rs1052553 or rs242557, neither on the multiplicative nor on the additive scale. Interpretation: This study confirms the association between PD and both SNCA SNPs and the H1 MAPT haplotype. It shows, based on a variety of approaches, that the joint action of variants in these 2 loci is consistent with independent effects of the genes without additional interacting effects. ANN NEUROL 2011; 69: 778-792
  • Fujioka, Shinsuke, et al. (författare)
  • Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III: a review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Orphanet journal of rare diseases. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1750-1172. ; 8
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia (ADCA) Type III is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) classically characterized by pure cerebellar ataxia and occasionally by non-cerebellar signs such as pyramidal signs, ophthalmoplegia, and tremor. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in adulthood; however, a minority of patients develop clinical features in adolescence. The incidence of ADCA Type III is unknown. ADCA Type III consists of six subtypes, SCA5, SCA6, SCA11, SCA26, SCA30, and SCA31. The subtype SCA6 is the most common. These subtypes are associated with four causative genes and two loci. The severity of symptoms and age of onset can vary between each SCA subtype and even between families with the same subtype. SCA5 and SCA11 are caused by specific gene mutations such as missense, inframe deletions, and frameshift insertions or deletions. SCA6 is caused by trinucleotide CAG repeat expansions encoding large uninterrupted glutamine tracts. SCA31 is caused by repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding region of the disease gene. Currently, there are no specific gene mutations associated with SCA26 or SCA30, though there is a confirmed locus for each subtype. This disease is mainly diagnosed via genetic testing; however, differential diagnoses include pure cerebellar ataxia and non-cerebellar features in addition to ataxia. Although not fatal, ADCA Type III may cause dysphagia and falls, which reduce the quality of life of the patients and may in turn shorten the lifespan. The therapy for ADCA Type III is supportive and includes occupational and speech modalities. There is no cure for ADCA Type III, but a number of recent studies have highlighted novel therapies, which bring hope for future curative treatments.
  • Garcia-Moreno, Hector, et al. (författare)
  • Tau and neurofilament light-chain as fluid biomarkers in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 29:8, s. 2439-2452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical trials in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) will require biomarkers for use as outcome measures.METHODS: To evaluate total tau (t-tau), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and neurofilament light-chain (NfL) as fluid biomarkers in SCA3, ATXN3 mutation carriers (n = 143) and controls (n = 172) were clinically assessed, and the plasma concentrations of the four proteins were analysed on the Simoa HD-1 platform. Eleven ATXN3 mutation carrier cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed for t-tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181 ). A transgenic SCA3 mouse model (MJDTg) was used to measure cerebellar t-tau levels.RESULTS: Plasma t-tau levels were higher in mutation carriers below the age of 50 compared to controls, and the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Signs was associated with t-tau in ataxic patients (p = 0.004). Pre-ataxic carriers showed higher cerebrospinal fluid t-tau and p-tau181 concentrations compared to ataxic patients (p = 0.025 and p = 0.014, respectively). Cerebellar t-tau was elevated in MJDTg mice compared to wild-type (p = 0.033) only in the early stages of the disease. GFAP and UCHL1 did not show higher levels in mutation carriers compared to controls. Plasma NfL concentrations were higher in mutation carriers compared to controls, and differences were greater for younger carriers. The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia was the strongest predictor of NfL in ataxic patients (p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that tau might be a marker of early disease stages in SCA3. NfL can discriminate mutation carriers from controls and is associated with different clinical variables. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm their potential role as biomarkers in clinical trials.
  • Kalia, Lorraine V, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Correlations With Lewy Body Pathology in LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA Neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6157 .- 2168-6149. ; 72:1, s. 100-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson disease (PD) known to date. The clinical features of manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers are generally indistinguishable from those of patients with sporadic PD. However, some PD cases associated with LRRK2 mutations lack Lewy bodies (LBs), a neuropathological hallmark of PD. We investigated whether the presence or absence of LBs correlates with different clinical features in LRRK2-related PD.
  • Konno, Takuya, et al. (författare)
  • Autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease caused by SNCA duplications.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1873-5126 .- 1353-8020. ; 22:sep 3, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery in 1997 that mutations in the SNCA gene cause Parkinson's disease (PD) greatly advanced our understanding of this illness. There are pathogenic missense mutations and multiplication mutations in SNCA. Thus, not only a mutant protein, but also an increased dose of wild-type protein can produce autosomal dominant parkinsonism. We review the literature on SNCA duplications and focus on pathologically-confirmed cases. We also report a newly-identified American family with SNCA duplication whose proband was autopsied. We found that over half of the reported cases with SNCA duplication had early-onset parkinsonism and non-motor features, such as dysautonomia, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), hallucinations (usually visual) and cognitive deficits leading to dementia. Only a few cases have presented with typical features of PD. Our case presented with depression and RBD that preceded parkinsonism, and dysautonomia that led to an initial diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. Dementia and visual hallucinations followed. Our patient and the other reported cases with SNCA duplications had widespread cortical Lewy pathology. Neuronal loss in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 2/3 regions were seen in about half of the autopsied SNCA duplication cases. Similar pathology was also observed in SNCA missense mutation and triplication carriers.
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