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Sökning: WFRF:(Xu Jianfeng)

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  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
  • Duggan, D., et al. (författare)
  • Two genome-wide association studies of aggressive prostate cancer implicate putative prostate tumor suppressor gene DAB2IP
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 99:24, s. 1836-1844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The consistent finding of a genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer suggests that there are germline sequence variants predisposing individuals to this disease. These variants could be useful in screening and treatment. Methods: We performed an exploratory genome-wide association scan in 498 men with aggressive prostate cancer and 494 control subjects selected from a population-based case-control study in Sweden. We combined the results of this scan with those for aggressive prostate cancer from the publicly available Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that showed statistically significant associations with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer based on two-sided allele tests were tested for their association with aggressive prostate cancer in two independent study populations composed of individuals of European or African American descent using one-sided tests and the genetic model (dominant or additive) associated with the lowest value in the exploratory study. Results: Among the approximately 60000 SNPs that were common to our study and CGEMS, we identified seven that had a similar (positive or negative) and statistically significant (P<.01) association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer in both studies. Analysis of the distribution of these SNPs among 1032 prostate cancer patients and 571 control subjects of European descent indicated that one, rs1571801, located in the DAB2IP gene, which encodes a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein and putative prostate tumor suppressor, was associated with aggressive prostate cancer (one-sided P value =. 004). The association was also statistically significant in an African American study population that included 210 prostate cancer patients and 346 control subjects (one-sided P value =. 02). Conclusion: A genetic variant in DAB2IP may be associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and should be evaluated further.
  • Lindmark, F, et al. (författare)
  • H6D polymorphism in macrophage-inhibitory cytokine-1 gene associated with prostate cancer
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci Oncol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden. Umea Univ Hosp, Dept Urol & Androl, S-90185 Umea, Sweden. Wake Forest Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Human Genomics, Winston Salem, NC 27109 USA. Johns Hopkins Med Inst, Dept Urol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 96:16, s. 1248-1254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Accumulating epidemiologic and molecular evidence suggest that inflammation is an important component in the etiology of prostate cancer. Macrophage-inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is thought to play an important role in inflammation by regulating macrophage activity. We examined whether sequence variants in the MIC-1 gene are associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Methods: The study population, a population-based case-control study in Sweden, consisted of 1383 prostate cancer case patients and 780 control subjects. From 94 of the control subjects, we constructed gene-specific haplotypes of MIC-1 and identified four haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): Exon1+25 (V9L), Exon1+142 (S48T), IVS1+1809, and Exon2+2423 (H6D). All study subjects were genotyped for the four SNPs, and conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A statistically significant difference (P = .006) in genotype frequency was observed for the nonsynonymous change H6D) (histidine to aspartic acid at position 6) between prostate cancer patients and control subjects. Carriers of the GC genotype, which results in the H6D change, experienced a lower risk of sporadic prostate cancer (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.97) and of familial prostate cancer (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.89) than the CC genotype carriers. In the study population, the proportion of prostate cancer cases attributable to the CC genotype was 7.2% for sporadic cancer and 19.2% for familial cancer. None of the other SNPs or haplotypes was associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: This study shows an association between a nonsynonymous change (H6D) in the MIC-1 gene and prostate cancer. This finding supports the hypothesis that genetic variation in the inflammatory process contributes to prostate cancer susceptibility.
  • Lindstrom, S, et al. (författare)
  • Comprehensive genetic evaluation of common E-cadherin sequence variants and prostate cancer risk : strong confirmation of functional promoter SNP
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Genom & Bioinformat, Stockholm, Sweden. Univ Leicester, Dept Genet, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England. Wake Forest Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Human Genom, Winston Salem, NC USA. Johns Hopkins Med Inst, Dept Urol, Baltimore, MD USA. CLINTECH, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden. : SPRINGER. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 118:3-4, s. 339-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) has been proposed as a prostate cancer (PC) susceptibility gene in several studies. Aberrant protein expression has been related to prognosis and progression in PC. In addition, a functional promoter SNP (rsl6260) has been found to associate with PC risk. We performed a comprehensive genetic analysis of CDH1 by using the method of haplotype tagged SNPs in a large Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 801 controls and 1,636 cases. In addition, Swedish PC families comprising a total of 157 cases sampled for DNA were analyzed for selected SNPs. Seven SNPs, including the promoter SNP rsl6260, that captured over 96% of CDH1 haplotype variation were selected as haplotype tagging SNPs and analyzed for associated PC risk. We observed significant confirmation of rsl6260 (P=0.003) for cases with a positive family history of PC (FH+) both in an independent case-control population and in PC families. In addition, a common haplotype (HapB, 25%) including the variant allele of rsl6260 was associated (P=0.004) with PC risk among FH+ cases. The promoter SNP rsl6260 as well as HapB were significantly transmitted to affected offspring in PC families. We report strong confirmation of the association between PC risk in FH+ cases and a functional CDH1 promoter SNP in an independent population. In conjunction with the biological importance of CDH1 our findings encourage further evaluation of genetic variation in CDH1 in relation to PC etiology. Due to the difficulties in replication of genetic association studies. this finding is unusual and novel.
  • Sun, J L, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence variants in toll-like receptor gene cluster (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) and prostate cancer risk
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Wake Forest Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Human Genom, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA. Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci & Oncol, Umea, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden. Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Urol & Clin Med, Orebro, Sweden. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Reg Oncol Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden. Johns Hopkins Sch Med, Dept Urol, Baltimore, MD USA. : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:7, s. 525-532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Chronic inflammation plays an important role in several human cancers and may be involved in the etiology of prostate cancer. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important in the innate immune response to pathogens and in cross-talk between innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Our previous finding of an association of TLR4 gene sequence variants and prostate cancer risk provides evidence for a role of TLRs in prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated whether sequence variants in the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 gene cluster, residing within a 54-kb region on 4p14, were associated with prostate cancer risk. Methods: We selected 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering these three genes and genotyped these SNPs in 96 control subjects from the Cancer Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) population-based prostate cancer case-control study. Five distinct haplotype blocks were inferred at this region, and we identified 17 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) that could uniquely describe < 95% of the haplotypes. These 17 htSNPs were then genotyped in the entire CAPS study population (1383 case subjects and 780 control subjects). Odds ratios of prostate cancer for the carriers of a variant allele versus those with the wild-type allele were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: The allele frequencies of 11 of the 17 SNPs were statistically significantly different between case and control subjects (P = .04-.001), with odds ratios for variant allele carriers (homozygous or heterozygous) compared with wild-type allele carriers ranging from 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00 to 1.43) to 1.38 (95% CI = 1.12 to 1.70). Phylogenetic tree analyses of common haplotypes identified a clade of two evolutionarily related haplotypes that are statistically significantly associated with prostate cancer risk. These two haplotypes contain all the risk alleles of these 11 associated SNPs. Conclusion: The observed multiple associated SNPs at the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 gene cluster were dependent and suggest the presence of a founder prostate cancer risk variant on this haplotype background. The TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 gene cluster may play a role in prostate cancer risk, although further functional studies are needed to pinpoint the disease-associated variants in this gene cluster.
  • Bailey-Wilson, Joan E, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Xq27-28 linkage in the international consortium for prostate cancer genetics (ICPCG) families
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2350 .- 1471-2350. ; 13, s. 46-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genetic variants are likely to contribute to a portion of prostate cancer risk. Full elucidation of the genetic etiology of prostate cancer is difficult because of incomplete penetrance and genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Current evidence suggests that genetic linkage to prostate cancer has been found on several chromosomes including the X; however, identification of causative genes has been elusive.Methods: Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed using 26 microsatellite markers in each of 11 groups of multiple-case prostate cancer families from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). Meta-analyses of the resultant family-specific linkage statistics across the entire 1,323 families and in several predefined subsets were then performed.Results: Meta-analyses of linkage statistics resulted in a maximum parametric heterogeneity lod score (HLOD) of 1.28, and an allele-sharing lod score (LOD) of 2.0 in favor of linkage to Xq27-q28 at 138 cM. In subset analyses, families with average age at onset less than 65 years exhibited a maximum HLOD of 1.8 (at 138 cM) versus a maximum regional HLOD of only 0.32 in families with average age at onset of 65 years or older. Surprisingly, the subset of families with only 2-3 affected men and some evidence of male-to-male transmission of prostate cancer gave the strongest evidence of linkage to the region (HLOD = 3.24, 134 cM). For this subset, the HLOD was slightly increased (HLOD = 3.47 at 134 cM) when families used in the original published report of linkage to Xq27-28 were excluded.Conclusions: Although there was not strong support for linkage to the Xq27-28 region in the complete set of families, the subset of families with earlier age at onset exhibited more evidence of linkage than families with later onset of disease. A subset of families with 2-3 affected individuals and with some evidence of male to male disease transmission showed stronger linkage signals. Our results suggest that the genetic basis for prostate cancer in our families is much more complex than a single susceptibility locus on the X chromosome, and that future explorations of the Xq27-28 region should focus on the subset of families identified here with the strongest evidence of linkage to this region.
  • Berndt, Sonja I, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale fine mapping of the HNF1B locus and prostate cancer risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 20:16, s. 3322-3329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case-control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10(-8) with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 × 10(-24)). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r(2)= 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 × 10(-23)) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 × 10(-8)); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 × 10(-10)), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer.
  • Brown, David A., et al. (författare)
  • Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 : A New Prognostic Marker in Prostate Cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 15:21, s. 6658-6664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: High serum levels of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) are strongly associated with metastatic prostate cancer, suggesting MIC-1 is a biomarker for prostate cancer prognosis. Experimental Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1,442 Swedish men with a pathologically verified diagnosis of prostate cancer between 2001 and 2003. Blood was drawn either pretreatment (n = 431) or posttreatment (n = 1,011) and cases were followed for a mean time of 4.9 years (range, 0.1-6.8 years). Results: MIC-1 serum levels independently predicted poor cancer-specific survival with an almost 3-fold higher cancer death rate in patients with serum levels in the highest quartile compared with men with serum levels in the lowest quartile (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.82-4.68). Pretreatment MIC-1 levels revealed an even stronger association with disease outcome with an 8-fold higher death rate in the highest compared with the lowest category (adjusted hazard ratio, 7.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-36.86). Among patients considered to have localized disease, MIC-1 significantly increased the discriminative capacity between indolent and lethal prostate cancer compared with the established prognostic markers clinical stage, pathologic grade, and prostate-specific antigen level (P = 0.016). A sequence variant in the MIC-1 gene was associated with decreased MIC-1 serum levels (P = 0.002) and decreased prostate cancer mortality (P = 0.003), suggesting a causative role of MIC-1 in prostate cancer prognosis. Conclusions: Serum MIC-1 concentration is a novel biomarker capable of predicting prostate cancer prognosis. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(21):6658-64)
  • Bäckhed, Fredrik, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamics and Stabilization of the Human Gut Microbiome during the First Year of Life
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cell Host & Microbe. - Cambridge : Cell Press. - 1931-3128 .- 1934-6069. ; 17:5, s. 690-703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gut microbiota is central to human health, but its establishment in early life has not been quantitatively and functionally examined. Applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers, we characterized the gut microbiome during the first year of life and assessed the impact of mode of delivery and feeding on its establishment. In contrast to vaginally delivered infants, the gut microbiota of infants delivered by C-section showed significantly less resemblance to their mothers. Nutrition had a major impact on early microbiota composition and function, with cessation of breast-feeding, rather than introduction of solid food, being required for maturation into an adult-like microbiota. Microbiota composition and ecological network had distinctive features at each sampled stage, in accordance with functional maturation of the microbiome. Our findings establish a framework for understanding the interplay between the gut microbiome and the human body in early life.
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