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  • de Rojas, I., et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in Alzheimer’s disease and risk stratification by polygenic risk scores
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic discoveries of Alzheimer’s disease are the drivers of our understanding, and together with polygenetic risk stratification can contribute towards planning of feasible and efficient preventive and curative clinical trials. We first perform a large genetic association study by merging all available case-control datasets and by-proxy study results (discovery n = 409,435 and validation size n = 58,190). Here, we add six variants associated with Alzheimer’s disease risk (near APP, CHRNE, PRKD3/NDUFAF7, PLCG2 and two exonic variants in the SHARPIN gene). Assessment of the polygenic risk score and stratifying by APOE reveal a 4 to 5.5 years difference in median age at onset of Alzheimer’s disease patients in APOE ɛ4 carriers. Because of this study, the underlying mechanisms of APP can be studied to refine the amyloid cascade and the polygenic risk score provides a tool to select individuals at high risk of Alzheimer’s disease. © 2021, The Author(s).
  • Vergallo, A., et al. (författare)
  • Association of plasma YKL-40 with brain amyloid-β levels, memory performance, and sex in subjective memory complainers
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier BV. - 0197-4580. ; 96, s. 22-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuroinflammation, a key early pathomechanistic alteration of Alzheimer's disease, may represent either a detrimental or a compensatory mechanism or both (according to the disease stage). YKL-40, a glycoprotein highly expressed in differentiated glial cells, is a candidate biomarker for in vivo tracking neuroinflammation in humans. We performed a longitudinal study in a monocentric cohort of cognitively healthy individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease exploring whether age, sex, and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele affect plasma YKL-40 concentrations. We investigated whether YKL-40 is associated with brain amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition, neuronal activity, and neurodegeneration as assessed via neuroimaging biomarkers. Finally, we investigated whether YKL-40 may predict cognitive performance. We found an age-associated increase of YKL-40 and observed that men display higher concentrations than women, indicating a potential sexual dimorphism. Moreover, YKL-40 was positively associated with memory performance and negatively associated with brain Aβ deposition (but not with metabolic signal). Consistent with translational studies, our results suggest a potentially protective effect of glia on incipient brain Aβ accumulation and neuronal homeostasis. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.
  • Vergallo, A., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma amyloid beta 40/42 ratio predicts cerebral amyloidosis in cognitively normal individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 15:6, s. 764-775
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Blood-based biomarkers of pathophysiological brain amyloid beta (A beta) accumulation, particularly for preclinical target and large-scale interventions, are warranted to effectively enrich Alzheimer's disease clinical trials and management. Methods: We investigated whether plasma concentrations of the A beta(1-40)/A beta(1-42) ratio, assessed using the single-molecule array (Simoa) immunoassay, may predict brain A beta positron emission tomography status in a large-scale longitudinal monocentric cohort (N = 276) of older individuals with subjective memory complaints. We performed a hypothesis-driven investigation followed by a no-apriori hypothesis study using machine learning. Results: The receiver operating characteristic curve and machine learning showed a balanced accuracy of 76.5% and 81%, respectively, for the plasma A beta(1-40)/A beta(1-42) ratio. The accuracy is not affected by the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele, sex, or age. Discussion: Our results encourage an independent validation cohort study to confirm the indication that the plasma A beta(1-40)/A beta(1-42) ratio, assessed via Simoa, may improve future standard of care and clinical trial design. (C) 2019 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Wang, Li-San, et al. (författare)
  • Rarity of the Alzheimer Disease-Protective APP A673T Variant in the United States.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2168-6157 .- 2168-6149. ; 72:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, a rare variant in the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) was described in a population from Iceland. This variant, in which alanine is replaced by threonine at position 673 (A673T), appears to protect against late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated the frequency of this variant in AD cases and cognitively normal controls to determine whether this variant will significantly contribute to risk assessment in individuals in the United States.
  • Kruse, N., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of a quantitative cerebrospinal fluid alpha-synuclein assay in a European-wide interlaboratory study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier BV. - 0197-4580. ; 36:9, s. 2587-2596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decreased levels of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies have been reported, however, not consistently in all cross-sectional studies. To test the performance of one recently released human-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of aSyn in CSF, we carried out a round robin trial with 18 participating laboratories trained in CSF ELISA analyses within the BIOMARKAPD project in the EU Joint Program -Neurodegenerative Disease Research. CSF samples (homogeneous aliquots from pools) and ELISA kits (one lot) were provided centrally and data reported back to one laboratory for data analysis. Our study showed that although factors such as preanalytical sample handling and lot-to-lot variability were minimized by our study design, we identified high variation in absolute values of CSF aSyn even when the same samples and same lots of assays were applied. We further demonstrate that although absolute concentrations differ between laboratories the quantitative results are comparable. With further standardization this assay may become an attractive tool for comparing aSyn measurements in diverse settings. Recommendations for further validation experiments and improvement of the interlaboratory results obtained are given. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Rostgaard, N., et al. (författare)
  • Differential proteomic profile of lumbar and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Fluids and Barriers of the Cns. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2045-8118. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundPathological cerebral conditions may manifest in altered composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although diagnostic CSF analysis seeks to establish pathological disturbances in the brain proper, CSF is generally sampled from the lumbar compartment for reasons of technical ease and ethical considerations. We here aimed to compare the molecular composition of CSF obtained from the ventricular versus the lumbar CSF compartments to establish a relevance for employing lumbar CSF as a proxy for the CSF bathing the brain tissue.MethodsCSF was collected from 46 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients during their diagnostic workup (lumbar samples) and in connection with their subsequent CSF diversion shunt surgery (ventricular samples). The mass-spectrometry-based proteomic profile was determined in these samples and in addition, selected biomarkers were quantified with ELISA (S100B, neurofilament light (NfL), amyloid-beta (A beta(40), A beta(42)), and total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) forms). The latter analysis was extended to include paired porcine samples obtained from the lumbar compartment and the cerebromedullary cistern closely related to the ventricles.ResultsIn total 1231 proteins were detected in the human CSF. Of these, 216 distributed equally in the two CSF compartments, whereas 22 were preferentially (or solely) present in the ventricular CSF and four in the lumbar CSF. The selected biomarkers of neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease displayed differential distribution, some with higher (S100B, T-tau, and P-tau) and some with lower (NfL, A beta(40), A beta(42)) levels in the ventricular compartment. In the porcine samples, all biomarkers were most abundant in the lumbar CSF.ConclusionsThe overall proteomic profile differs between the ventricular and the lumbar CSF compartments, and so does the distribution of clinically employed biomarkers. However, for a range of CSF proteins and biomarkers, one can reliably employ lumbar CSF as a proxy for ventricular CSF if or a lumbar/cranial index for the particular molecule has been established. It is therefore important to verify the compartmental preference of the proteins or biomarkers of interest prior to extrapolating from lumbar CSF to that of the ventricular fluid bordering the brain.
  • Wightman, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study with 1,126,563 individuals identifies new risk loci for Alzheimer’s disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Nature. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 53:9, s. 1276-1282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease is a prevalent age-related polygenic disease that accounts for 50–70% of dementia cases. Currently, only a fraction of the genetic variants underlying Alzheimer’s disease have been identified. Here we show that increased sample sizes allowed identification of seven previously unidentified genetic loci contributing to Alzheimer’s disease. This study highlights microglia, immune cells and protein catabolism as relevant to late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, while identifying and prioritizing previously unidentified genes of potential interest. We anticipate that these results can be included in larger meta-analyses of Alzheimer’s disease to identify further genetic variants that contribute to Alzheimer’s pathology.
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