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Sökning: WFRF:(Zobel J)

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  • Schafmayer, Clemens, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis of diverticular disease points towards neuromuscular, connective tissue and epithelial pathomechanisms
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 68:5, s. 854-865
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Diverticular disease is a common complex disorder characterised by mucosal outpouchings of the colonic wall that manifests through complications such as diverticulitis, perforation and bleeding. We report the to date largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic risk factors for diverticular disease. Design Discovery GWAS analysis was performed on UK Biobank imputed genotypes using 31 964 cases and 419 135 controls of European descent. Associations were replicated in a European sample of 3893 cases and 2829 diverticula-free controls and evaluated for risk contribution to diverticulitis and uncomplicated diverticulosis. Transcripts at top 20 replicating loci were analysed by real-time quatitative PCR in preparations of the mucosal, submucosal and muscular layer of colon. The localisation of expressed protein at selected loci was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results We discovered 48 risk loci, of which 12 are novel, with genome-wide significance and consistent OR in the replication sample. Nominal replication (p< 0.05) was observed for 27 loci, and additional 8 in meta-analysis with a population-based cohort. The most significant novel risk variant rs9960286 is located near CTAGE1 with a p value of 2.3x10-10 and 0.002 (OR allelic = 1.14 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.24)) in the replication analysis. Four loci showed stronger effects for diverticulitis, PHGR1 (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.56), FAM155A-2 (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.42), CALCB (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33) and S100A10 (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33). Conclusion I n silico analyses point to diverticulosis primarily as a disorder of intestinal neuromuscular function and of impaired connective fibre support, while an additional diverticulitis risk might be conferred by epithelial dysfunction.
  • Willerslev, E, et al. (författare)
  • Fifty thousand years of arctic vegetation change and megafauna diet
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 506:7486, s. 47-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although it is generally agreed that the Arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of Arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we also explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many of which became extinct around 10 kyr bp (before present). For much of the period investigated, Arctic vegetation consisted of dry steppe-tundra dominated by forbs (non-graminoid herbaceous vascular plants). During the Last Glacial Maximum (25–15 kyr bp), diversity declined markedly, although forbs remained dominant. Much changed after 10 kyr bp, with the appearance of moist tundra dominated by woody plants and graminoids. Our analyses indicate that both graminoids and forbs would have featured in megafaunal diets. As such, our findings question the predominance of a Late Quaternary graminoid-dominated Arctic mammoth steppe.
  • Hammen, V. C., et al. (författare)
  • Establishment of a cross-European field site network in the ALARM project for assessing large-scale changes in biodiversity
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment. - : Springer. - 1573-2959 .- 0167-6369. ; 164:1-4, s. 337-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The field site network (FSN) plays a central role in conducting joint research within all Assessing Large-scale Risks for biodiversity with tested Methods (ALARM) modules and provides a mechanism for integrating research on different topics in ALARM on the same site for measuring multiple impacts on biodiversity. The network covers most European climates and biogeographic regions, from Mediterranean through central European and boreal to subarctic. The project links databases with the European-wide field site network FSN, including geographic information system (GIS)-based information to characterise the test location for ALARM researchers for joint on-site research. Maps are provided in a standardised way and merged with other site-specific information. The application of GIS for these field sites and the information management promotes the use of the FSN for research and to disseminate the results. We conclude that ALARM FSN sites together with other research sites in Europe jointly could be used as a future backbone for research proposals.
  • Bogers, M., et al. (författare)
  • The open innovation research landscape : established perspectives and emerging themes across different levels of analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Industry and Innovation. - : Routledge. - 1366-2716 .- 1469-8390. ; 24:1, s. 8-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper provides an overview of the main perspectives and themes emerging in research on open innovation (OI). The paper is the result of a collaborative process among several OI scholars–having a common basis in the recurrent Professional Development Workshop on ‘Researching Open Innovation’ at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management. In this paper, we present opportunities for future research on OI, organised at different levels of analysis. We discuss some of the contingencies at these different levels, and argue that future research needs to study OI–originally an organisational-level phenomenon–across multiple levels of analysis. While our integrative framework allows comparing, contrasting and integrating various perspectives at different levels of analysis, further theorising will be needed to advance OI research. On this basis, we propose some new research categories as well as questions for future research–particularly those that span across research domains that have so far developed in isolation.
  • Fdez. Galván, Ignacio, et al. (författare)
  • OpenMolcas : From Source Code to Insight
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1549-9618 .- 1549-9626. ; 15:11, s. 5925-5964
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this Article we describe the OpenMolcas environment and invite the computational chemistry community to collaborate. The open-source project already includes a large number of new developments realized during the transition from the commercial MOLCAS product to the open-source platform. The paper initially describes the technical details of the new software development platform. This is followed by brief presentations of many new methods, implementations, and features of the OpenMolcas program suite. These developments include novel wave function methods such as stochastic complete active space self-consistent field, density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) methods, and hybrid multiconfigurational wave function and density functional theory models. Some of these implementations include an array of additional options and functionalities. The paper proceeds and describes developments related to explorations of potential energy surfaces. Here we present methods for the optimization of conical intersections, the simulation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, and interfaces to tools for semiclassical and quantum mechanical nuclear dynamics. Furthermore, the Article describes features unique to simulations of spectroscopic and magnetic phenomena such as the exact semiclassical description of the interaction between light and matter, various X-ray processes, magnetic circular dichroism, and properties. Finally, the paper describes a number of built-in and add-on features to support the OpenMolcas platform with postcalculation analysis and visualization, a multiscale simulation option using frozen-density embedding theory, and new electronic and muonic basis sets.
  • De Frenne, P, et al. (författare)
  • Significant effects of temperature on the reproductive output of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa L.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management. - : Elsevier. - 0378-1127 .- 1872-7042. ; 259:4, s. 809-817
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate warming is already influencing plant migration in different parts of the world.Numerous modelshave been developed to forecast future plant distributions. Few studies, however, have investigated thepotential effect of warming on the reproductive output of plants. Understorey forest herbs in particular,have received little attention in the debate on climate change impacts.This study focuses on the effect of temperature on sexual reproductive output (number of seeds, seedmass, germination percentage and seedling mass) of Anemone nemorosa L., a model species for slowcolonizing herbaceous forest plants. We sampled seeds of A. nemorosa in populations along a 2400 kmlatitudinal gradient from northern France to northern Sweden during three growing seasons (2005, 2006and 2008). This study design allowed us to isolate the effects of accumulated temperature (GrowingDegree Hours; GDH) from latitude and the local abiotic and biotic environment. Germination and seedsowing trials were performed in incubators, a greenhouse and under field conditions in a forest. Finally,we disentangled correlations between the different reproductive traits of A. nemorosa along thelatitudinal gradient.We found a clear positive relationship between accumulated temperature and seed and seedlingtraits: reproductive output of A. nemorosa improved with increasing GDH along the latitudinal gradient.Seedmass and seedling mass, for instance, increased by 9.7% and 10.4%, respectively, for every 1000 8C hincrease in GDH.Wealso derived strong correlations between several seed and seedling traits both underfield conditions and in incubators. Our results indicate that seed mass, incubator-based germinationpercentage (Germ%Inc) and the output of germinable seeds (product of number of seeds and Germ%Incdivided by 100) from plants grown along a latitudinal gradient (i.e. at different temperature regimes)provide valuable proxies to parameterize key population processes in models.We conclude that (1) climate warming may have a pronounced positive impact on sexualreproduction of A. nemorosa and (2) climate models forecasting plant distributions would benefit fromincluding the temperature sensitivity of key seed traits and population processes.
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