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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(de Angelis Martin Hrabe) "

Sökning: WFRF:(de Angelis Martin Hrabe)

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1.
  • Fuchsberger, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 536:7614, s. 41-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. To increase statistical power, we expanded the sample size via genotyping and imputation in a further 111,548 subjects. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes after sequencing were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies. Comprehensive enumeration of sequence variation is necessary to identify functional alleles that provide important clues to disease pathophysiology, but large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to type 2 diabetes.
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2.
  • Schriever, Sonja C., et al. (författare)
  • Type 2 diabetes risk gene Dusp8 regulates hypothalamic Jnk signaling and insulin sensitivity
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - : Am Soc Clin Investig. - 0021-9738. ; 130:11, s. 6093-6108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified DUSP8, encoding a dual-specificity phosphatase targeting mitogen-activated protein kinases, as a type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk gene. Here, we reveal that Dusp8 is a gatekeeper in the hypothalamic control of glucose homeostasis in mice and humans. Male, but not female, Dusp8 loss-of-function mice, either with global or corticotropin-releasing hormone neuron–specific deletion, had impaired systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when exposed to high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we found impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback, blunted sympathetic responsiveness, and chronically elevated corticosterone levels driven by hypothalamic hyperactivation of Jnk signaling. Accordingly, global Jnk1 ablation, AAV-mediated Dusp8 overexpression in the mediobasal hypothalamus, or metyrapone-induced chemical adrenalectomy rescued the impaired glucose homeostasis of obese male Dusp8-KO mice, respectively. The sex-specific role of murine Dusp8 in governing hypothalamic Jnk signaling, insulin sensitivity, and systemic glucose tolerance was consistent with functional MRI data in human volunteers that revealed an association of the DUSP8 rs2334499 risk variant with hypothalamic insulin resistance in men. Further, expression of DUSP8 was increased in the infundibular nucleus of T2D humans. In summary, our findings suggest the GWAS-identified gene Dusp8 as a novel hypothalamic factor that plays a functional role in the etiology of T2D.
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3.
  • Keipert, S., et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous FGF21-signaling controls paradoxical obesity resistance of UCP1-deficient mice
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brown adipose thermogenesis increases energy expenditure and relies on uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), however, UCP1 knock-out mice show resistance to diet-induced obesity at room temperature. Here, the authors show that this resistance relies on FGF21-signaling, inducing the browning of white adipose tissue. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) executes thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, which is a major focus of human obesity research. Although the UCP1-knockout (UCP1 KO) mouse represents the most frequently applied animal model to judge the anti-obesity effects of UCP1, the assessment is confounded by unknown anti-obesity factors causing paradoxical obesity resistance below thermoneutral temperatures. Here we identify the enigmatic factor as endogenous FGF21, which is primarily mediating obesity resistance. The generation of UCP1/FGF21 double-knockout mice (dKO) fully reverses obesity resistance. Within mild differences in energy metabolism, urine metabolomics uncover increased secretion of acyl-carnitines in UCP1 KOs, suggesting metabolic reprogramming. Strikingly, transcriptomics of metabolically important organs reveal enhanced lipid and oxidative metabolism in specifically white adipose tissue that is fully reversed in dKO mice. Collectively, this study characterizes the effects of endogenous FGF21 that acts as master regulator to protect from diet-induced obesity in the absence of UCP1.
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4.
  • Olszewski, Pawel K., et al. (författare)
  • Neurobeachin, a Regulator of Synaptic Protein Targeting, Is Associated with Body Fat Mass and Feeding Behavior in Mice and Body-Mass Index in Humans
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 8:3, s. e1002568-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurobeachin (Nbea) regulates neuronal membrane protein trafficking and is required for the development and functioning of central and neuromuscular synapses. In homozygous knockout (KO) mice, Nbea deficiency causes perinatal death. Here, we report that heterozygous KO mice haploinsufficient for Nbea have higher body weight due to increased adipose tissue mass. In several feeding paradigms, heterozygous KO mice consumed more food than wild-type (WT) controls, and this consumption was primarily driven by calories rather than palatability. Expression analysis of feeding-related genes in the hypothalamus and brainstem with real-time PCR showed differential expression of a subset of neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor mRNAs between WT and Nbea+/- mice in the sated state and in response to food deprivation, but not to feeding reward. In humans, we identified two intronic NBEA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with body-mass index (BMI) in adult and juvenile cohorts. Overall, data obtained in mice and humans suggest that variation of Nbea abundance or activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related neural circuits. Our study emphasizes the importance of neural mechanisms in body weight control and points out NBEA as a potential risk gene in human obesity.
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5.
  • Shimokawa, Noriaki, et al. (författare)
  • CIN85 regulates dopamine receptor endocytosis and governs behaviour in mice
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: EMBO Journal. - : European Molecular Biology Organization. - 0261-4189 .- 1460-2075. ; 29:14, s. 2421-2432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite extensive investigations of Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa (CIN85) in receptor trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about its functions in vivo. Here, we report the study of a mouse deficient of the two CIN85 isoforms expressed in the central nervous system, exposing a function of CIN85 in dopamine receptor endocytosis. Mice lacking CIN85 exon 2 (CIN85(Deltaex2)) show hyperactivity phenotypes, characterized by increased physical activity and exploratory behaviour. Interestingly, CIN85(Deltaex2) animals display abnormally high levels of dopamine and D2 dopamine receptors (D2DRs) in the striatum, an important centre for the coordination of animal behaviour. Importantly, CIN85 localizes to the post-synaptic compartment of striatal neurons in which it co-clusters with D2DRs. Moreover, it interacts with endocytic regulators such as dynamin and endophilins in the striatum. Absence of striatal CIN85 causes insufficient complex formation of endophilins with D2DRs in the striatum and ultimately decreased D2DR endocytosis in striatal neurons in response to dopamine stimulation. These findings indicate an important function of CIN85 in the regulation of dopamine receptor functions and provide a molecular explanation for the hyperactive behaviour of CIN85(Deltaex2) mice.
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6.
  • Conlon, Thomas M, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of LTβR signalling activates WNT-induced regeneration in lung
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 588:7836, s. 151-156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lymphotoxin β-receptor (LTβR) signalling promotes lymphoid neogenesis and the development of tertiary lymphoid structures1,2, which are associated with severe chronic inflammatory diseases that span several organ systems3-6. How LTβR signalling drives chronic tissue damage particularly in the lung, the mechanism(s) that regulate this process, and whether LTβR blockade might be of therapeutic value have remained unclear. Here we demonstrate increased expression of LTβR ligands in adaptive and innate immune cells, enhanced non-canonical NF-κB signalling, and enriched LTβR target gene expression in lung epithelial cells from patients with smoking-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and from mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Therapeutic inhibition of LTβR signalling in young and aged mice disrupted smoking-related inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, induced regeneration of lung tissue, and reverted airway fibrosis and systemic muscle wasting. Mechanistically, blockade of LTβR signalling dampened epithelial non-canonical activation of NF-κB, reduced TGFβ signalling in airways, and induced regeneration by preventing epithelial cell death and activating WNT/β-catenin signalling in alveolar epithelial progenitor cells. These findings suggest that inhibition of LTβR signalling represents a viable therapeutic option that combines prevention of tertiary lymphoid structures1 and inhibition of apoptosis with tissue-regenerative strategies.
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7.
  • Egaña, Isabel, et al. (författare)
  • Female mice lacking Pald1 exhibit endothelial cell apoptosis and emphysema
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 7:15453
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Paladin (Pald1, mKIAA1274 or x99384) was identified in screens for vascular-specific genes and is a putative phosphatase. Paladin has also been proposed to be involved in various biological processes such as insulin signaling, innate immunity and neural crest migration. To determine the role of paladin we have now characterized the Pald1 knock-out mouse in a broad array of behavioral, physiological and biochemical tests. Here, we show that female, but not male, Pald1 heterozygous and homozygous knock-out mice display an emphysema-like histology with increased alveolar air spaces and impaired lung function with an obstructive phenotype. In contrast to many other tissues where Pald1 is restricted to the vascular compartment, Pald1 is expressed in both the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments of the postnatal lung. However, in Pald1 knock-out females, there is a specific increase in apoptosis and proliferation of endothelial cells, but not in non-endothelial cells. This results in a transient reduction of endothelial cells in the maturing lung. Our data suggests that Pald1 is required during lung vascular development and for normal function of the developing and adult lung in a sex-specific manner. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a sex-specific effect on endothelial cell apoptosis.
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8.
  • Eisenberg, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Cardioprotection and lifespan extension by the natural polyamine spermidine
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - 1078-8956 .- 1546-170X. ; 22:12, s. 1428-1438
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aging is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Here we show that oral supplementation of the natural polyamine spermidine extends the lifespan of mice and exerts cardioprotective effects, reducing cardiac hypertrophy and preserving diastolic function in old mice. Spermidine feeding enhanced cardiac autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration, and it also improved the mechano-elastical properties of cardiomyocytes in vivo, coinciding with increased titin phosphorylation and suppressed subclinical inflammation. Spermidine feeding failed to provide cardioprotection in mice that lack the autophagy-related protein Atg5 in cardiomyocytes. In Dahl salt-sensitive rats that were fed a high-salt diet, a model for hypertension-induced congestive heart failure, spermidine feeding reduced systemic blood pressure, increased titin phosphorylation and prevented cardiac hypertrophy and a decline in diastolic function, thus delaying the progression to heart failure. In humans, high levels of dietary spermidine, as assessed from food questionnaires, correlated with reduced blood pressure and a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Our results suggest a new and feasible strategy for protection against cardiovascular disease.
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9.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Data Descriptor : Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2052-4463. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (> 80% of low-frequency coding variants in similar to ~82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and similar to ~90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in similar to ~44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.
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10.
  • Flannick, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2052-4463. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (> 80% of low-frequency coding variants in similar to 82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and similar to 90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in similar to 44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.
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