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  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley Open Access. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
  • Chaparro, M. Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood family structure and women's adult overweight risk : A longitudinal study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 45:5, s. 511-519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether women's adult overweight and obesity risk was associated with their childhood family structure, measured as their mothers' marital status history, during the women's first 18 years of life. Methods: Using linked register data, we analyzed 30,584 primiparous women born in Sweden in 1975 who were between 19-35 years of age when their height and pre-pregnancy weight was recorded. The outcomes were women's overweight/ obesity (body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and the predictor was mothers' marital status history, which was summarized using sequence analysis. We carried out nested logistic regression models adjusting for women's age and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Mothers' marital status history was summarized into six clusters: stable marriage, stable cohabitation, married then divorcing, cohabiting then separating, varied transitions, and not with father. In fully adjusted models and compared with women whose mothers belonged to the stable marriage cluster: (1) women whose mothers belonged to the other marital status clusters had higher odds of overweight/obesity (odds ratio (OR) ranging 1.15-1.19; p < 0.05); and (2) women whose mothers belonged to the stable cohabitation (OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.52), cohabiting then separating (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.49), varied transitions (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.11-1.39), and not with father (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.00-1.54) clusters had higher odds of obesity. Conclusions: Women whose mothers were not in stable marriage relationships had higher odds of being overweight or obese in adulthood. The finding that even women raised in the context of stable cohabitation had higher odds of being overweight or obese is intriguing as these relationships are socially accepted in Sweden.
  • Chaparro, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Regional inequalities in pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in Sweden, 1992, 2000, and 2010
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 43:5, s. 534-539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To investigate regional differences and time trends in women's overweight and obesity in Sweden. Methods: Using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (women aged 18 years, first pregnancy only) and the Total Population Register accessed through the Umea SIMSAM Lab, age-standardized prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI 25 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI 30 kg/m(2)) were estimated by county for the years 1992, 2000, and 2010. Maps were created using ArcMap v10.2.2 to display regional variations over time and logistic regression analyses were used to assess if the observed trends were significant. Results: The prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and obesity increased significantly in all Swedish counties between 1992, and 2010. In 2010, Sodermanland and Gotland exhibited the highest age-standardized overweight/obesity (39.7%) and obesity (15.1%) prevalence, respectively. The sharpest increases between 1992 and 2010 were observed in Vasterbotten for overweight/obesity (75% increase) and in Gotland for obesity (233% increase). Across the years, Stockholm had the lowest prevalence of overweight/obesity (26.3% in 2010) and obesity (7.3% in 2010) and one of the least steep increases in prevalence of both between 1992 and 2010. Conclusions: Substantial regional differences in pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity prevalence are apparent in Sweden. Further research should elucidate the mechanisms causing these differences.
  • Birney, Ewan, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 447:7146, s. 799-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about human genome function in several major areas. First, our studies provide convincing evidence that the genome is pervasively transcribed, such that the majority of its bases can be found in primary transcripts, including non-protein-coding transcripts, and those that extensively overlap one another. Second, systematic examination of transcriptional regulation has yielded new understanding about transcription start sites, including their relationship to specific regulatory sequences and features of chromatin accessibility and histone modification. Third, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure has emerged, including its inter-relationship with DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. Finally, integration of these new sources of information, in particular with respect to mammalian evolution based on inter- and intra-species sequence comparisons, has yielded new mechanistic and evolutionary insights concerning the functional landscape of the human genome. Together, these studies are defining a path for pursuit of a more comprehensive characterization of human genome function.
  • de Luna, Xavier, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Can adult education delay retirement from the Labour Market?
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Several studies have suggested that education is associated with later retirement from the labour market. In this paper, we examine whether adult education, involving enrolees aged 42 or above, delays retirement to potentially increase labour force participation among the elderly. With Swedish register data of transcripts from adult education and an-nual earnings, which encompasses 1979-2004 and 1982-2004 respectively, we exploit the fact that adult education is a large-scale phenomenon in Sweden and construct a measure of the timing of the transition from being self-supported by productive work to being supported by pension transfers. We match samples of treated and controls on the propen-sity score and use non-parametric estimation of survival rates. The results indicate that adult education has no effect on the timing of the retirement from the labour force. This can be contrasted with the fact that adult education is one of the cornerstones of the OECD strategy for “active ageing” and the European Union’s “Lisbon strategy” for growth and jobs.
  • Grüning, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Bioconda: A sustainable and comprehensive software distribution for the life sciences
  • 2017
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We present Bioconda (https://bioconda.github.io), a distribution of bioinformatics software for the lightweight, multi-platform and language-agnostic package manager Conda. Currently, Bioconda offers a collection of over 3000 software packages, which is continuously maintained, updated, and extended by a growing global community of more than 200 contributors. Bioconda improves analysis reproducibility by allowing users to define isolated environments with defined software versions, all of which are easily installed and managed without administrative privileges.
  • Gorbach, Tetiana, 1991-, et al. (författare)
  • A Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Model Approach for Analysis of Resting-State Functional Brain Connectivity : An Alternative to Thresholding
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain Connectivity. - : Mary Ann Liebert. - 2158-0014 .- 2158-0022. ; 10:5, s. 202-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article proposes a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to analyze functional brain connectivity where mixture components represent "positively connected" and "non-connected" brain regions. Such an approach provides a data-informed separation of reliable and spurious connections in contrast to arbitrary thresholding of a connectivity matrix. The hierarchical structure of the model allows simultaneous inferences for the entire population as well as for each individual subject. A new connectivity measure, the posterior probability of a given pair of brain regions of a specific subject to be connected given the observed correlation of regions' activity, can be computed from the model fit. The posterior probability reflects the connectivity of a pair of regions relative to the overall connectivity pattern of an individual, which is overlooked in traditional correlation analyses. This article demonstrates that using the posterior probability might diminish the effect of spurious connections on inferences, which is present when a correlation is used as a connectivity measure. In addition, simulation analyses reveal that the sparsification of the connectivity matrix using the posterior probabilities might outperform the absolute thresholding based on correlations. Therefore, we suggest that posterior probability might be a beneficial measure of connectivity compared with the correlation. The applicability of the introduced method is exemplified by a study of functional resting-state brain connectivity in older adults.
  • Gorbach, Tetiana, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 51, s. 167-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. 
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