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Sökning: WFRF:(de Wildt Saskia N)

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1.
  • Smits, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Current knowledge, challenges and innovations in developmental pharmacology: A combined conect4children Expert Group and European Society for Developmental, Perinatal and Paediatric Pharmacology White Paper.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: British journal of clinical pharmacology. - 1365-2125.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Developmental pharmacology describes the impact of maturation on drug disposition (pharmacokinetics, PK) and drug effects (pharmacodynamics, PD) throughout the paediatric age range. This paper, written by a multidisciplinary group of experts, summarizes current knowledge, and provides suggestions to pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies and academicians on how to incorporate the latest knowledge regarding developmental pharmacology and innovative techniques into neonatal and paediatric drug development. Biological aspects of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion throughout development are summarized. Although this area made enormous progress during the last two decades, remaining knowledge gaps were identified. Minimal risk and burden designs allow for optimally informative but minimally invasive PK sampling, while concomitant profiling of drug metabolites may provide additional insight in the unique PK behaviour in children. Furthermore, developmental PD needs to be considered during drug development, which is illustrated by disease- and/or target organ-specific examples. Identifying and testing PD targets and effects in special populations, and application of age- and/or population-specific assessment tools are discussed. Drug development plans also need to incorporate innovative techniques such as preclinical models to study therapeutic strategies, and shift from sequential enrolment of subgroups, to more rational designs. To stimulate appropriate research plans, illustrations of specific PK/PD-related as well as drug safety-related challenges during drug development are provided. The suggestions made in this joint paper of the Innovative Medicines Initiative conect4children Expert group on Developmental Pharmacology and the European Society for Developmental, Perinatal and Paediatric Pharmacology, should facilitate all those involved in drug development.
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2.
  • Brussee, Janneke M., et al. (författare)
  • First-Pass CYP3A-Mediated Metabolism of Midazolam in the Gut Wall and Liver in Preterm Neonates
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: CPT. - : WILEY. - 2163-8306. ; 7:6, s. 374-383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To predict first-pass and systemic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A-mediated metabolism of midazolam in preterm neonates, a physiological population pharmacokinetic model was developed describing intestinal and hepatic midazolam clearance in preterm infants. On the basis of midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam concentrations from 37 preterm neonates (gestational age 26-34 weeks) receiving midazolam orally and/or via a 30-minute intravenous infusion, intrinsic clearance in the gut wall and liver were found to be very low, with lower values in the gut wall (0.0196 and 6.7 L/h, respectively). This results in a highly variable and high total oral bioavailability of 92.1% (range, 67-95%) in preterm neonates, whereas this is around 30% in adults. This approach in which intestinal and hepatic clearance were separately estimated shows that the high bioavailability in preterm neonates is explained by, likely age-related, low CYP3A activity in the liver and even lower CYP3A activity in the gut wall.
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3.
  • Brussee, Janneke M., et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of Intestinal and Hepatic CYP3A-Mediated Metabolism of Midazolam in Children Using a Physiological Population Pharmacokinetic Modelling Approach
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pharmaceutical research. - : Springer. - 0724-8741 .- 1573-904X. ; 35:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Changes in drug absorption and first-pass metabolism have been reported throughout the pediatric age range. Our aim is to characterize both intestinal and hepatic CYP3A-mediated metabolism of midazolam in children in order to predict first-pass and systemic metabolism of CYP3A substrates. Methods Pharmacokinetic (PK) data of midazolam and 1-OH-midazolam from 264 post-operative children 1-18 years of age after oral administration were analyzed using a physiological population PK. modelling approach. In the model, consisting of physiological compartments representing the gastro-intestinal tract and liver,intrinsic intestinal and hepatic clearances were estimated to derive values for bioavailability and plasma clearance. Results The whole-organ intrinsic clearance in the gut wall and liver were found to increase with body weight, with a 105 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5-405) times lower intrinsic gut wall clearance than the intrinsic hepatic dearance (i.e. 5.08 L/h (relative standard error (RSE) 10%) versus 527 L/h (RSE 7%) for a 16 kg individual, respectively). When expressed per gram of organ, intrinsic clearance increases with increasing body weight in the gut wall, but decreases in the liver, indicating that CYP3A-mediated intrinsic clearance and local bioavailability in the gut wall and liver do not change with age in parallel. The resulting total bioavailability was found to be age-independent with a median of 20.8% in children (95%CI: 3.8-50.0%). Conclusion In conclusion, the intrinsic CYP3A-mediated gut wall clearance is substantially lower than the intrinsic hepatic CYP3A-mediated clearance in children from 1 to 18 years of age, and contributes less to the overall first-pass metabolism compared to adults.
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4.
  • Vinarov, Zahari, et al. (författare)
  • Current challenges and future perspectives in oral absorption research : An opinion of the UNGAP network
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. - 0169-409X .- 1872-8294. ; 171, s. 289-331
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although oral drug delivery is the preferred administration route and has been used for centuries, modern drug discovery and development pipelines challenge conventional formulation approaches and highlight the insufficient mechanistic understanding of processes critical to oral drug absorption. This review presents the opinion of UNGAP scientists on four key themes across the oral absorption landscape: (1) specific patient populations, (2) regional differences in the gastrointestinal tract, (3) advanced formulations and (4) food-drug interactions. The differences of oral absorption in pediatric and geriatric populations, the specific issues in colonic absorption, the formulation approaches for poorly water-soluble (small molecules) and poorly permeable (peptides, RNA etc.) drugs, as well as the vast realm of food effects, are some of the topics discussed in detail. The identified controversies and gaps in the current understanding of gastrointestinal absorption-related processes are used to create a roadmap for the future of oral drug absorption research.
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