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Sökning: WFRF:(van Bokhoven Hans)

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  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
  • Ito, Yoko (författare)
  • De Novo Truncating Mutations in WASF1 Cause Intellectual Disability with Seizures.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American journal of human genetics. - 1537-6605. ; 103:1, s. 144-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Next-generation sequencing has been invaluable in the elucidation of the genetic etiology of many subtypes of intellectual disability in recent years. Here, using exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, we identified three de novo truncating mutations in WAS protein family member 1 (WASF1) in five unrelated individuals with moderate to profound intellectual disability with autistic features and seizures. WASF1, also known as WAVE1, is part of the WAVE complex and acts as a mediator between Rac-GTPase and actin to induce actin polymerization. The three mutations connected by Matchmaker Exchange were c.1516C>T (p.Arg506Ter), which occurs in three unrelated individuals, c.1558C>T (p.Gln520Ter), and c.1482delinsGCCAGG (p.Ile494MetfsTer23). All three variants are predicted to partially or fully disrupt the C-terminal actin-binding WCA domain. Functional studies using fibroblast cells from two affected individuals with the c.1516C>T mutation showed a truncated WASF1 and a defect in actin remodeling. This study provides evidence that de novo heterozygous mutations in WASF1 cause a rare form of intellectual disability.
  • Kalscheuer, Vera M, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in the polyglutamine binding protein 1 gene cause X-linked mental retardation
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 35:4, s. 313-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We found mutations in the gene PQBP1 in 5 of 29 families with nonsyndromic (MRX) and syndromic (MRXS) forms of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). Clinical features in affected males include mental retardation, microcephaly, short stature, spastic paraplegia and midline defects. PQBP1 has previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of polyglutamine expansion diseases. Our findings link this gene to XLMR and shed more light on the pathogenesis of this common disorder.
  • Brown, Matthew, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Surface Charge Density on the Affinity of Oxide Nanoparticles for the Vapor–Water Interface
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Langmuir. - 0743-7463 .- 1520-5827. ; 29:16, s. 5023-5029
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the vapor–water interface, the affinity of nanometer-sized silica colloids to adsorb at the interface is shown to depend on colloid surface charge density. In aqueous suspensions at pH 10 corrected Debye–Hückel theory for surface complexation calculations predict that smaller silica colloids have increased negative surface charge density that originates from enhanced screening of deprotonated silanol groups (≡Si–O–) by counterions in the condensed ion layer. The increased negative surface charge density results in an electrostatic repulsion from the vapor–water interface that is seen to a lesser extent for larger particles that have a reduced charge density in the XPS measurements. We compare the results and interpretation of the in-situ XPS and corrected Debye–Hückel theory for surface complexation calculations with traditional surface tension measurements. Our results show that controlling the surface charge density of colloid particles can regulate their adsorption to the interface between two dielectrics.
  • Mansouri, Mahmoud R., 1975- (författare)
  • Molecular Characterisation of Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Congenital Disorders
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Chromosomal abnormalities are defined as changes in the chromosome structure and fall in one of two categories. The first category is numerical alterations while the second category consists of structural abnormalities. Structural chromosomal abnormalities do not always interrupt genes in order to cause disease. They can also affect gene expression by separating a gene and its promoter element from distant regulatory elements. We have used characterisation of structural chromosomal abnormalities to identify the genetic bases for several congenital disorders.In papers I-III, we have applied molecular characterisation of chromosomal translocations in order to identify candidate genes involved in mental retardation, hypospadias and anal malformation and premature ovarian failure. In paper I, we localised the chromosome X translocation breakpoint in a t(X;15) to be in the immediate proximity of the gene ZDHHC15 in a patient with severe mental retardation. Subsequent experiments revealed loss of ZDHHC15 transcription in the patient which suggests this gene to be involved in the aetiology of the patient’s phenotype. In paper II, we show that a balanced translocation between chromosomes 6 and 17 in a patient with urogential malformation disrupts 2 genes, one at each translocation breakpoint. We also identified a fusion-gene as a result of the translocation. Our hypethesis is that the translocation together with its molecular consequences is important for the phenotype in the patient. Similarly, in paper III, we have used molecular characterisation of the breakpoints in a balanced translocation between chromosomes X and 11 in order to localise candidate genes in ovarian function. Our results indicate a number of genes affected by the translocation. In paper IV, we have used array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) in order to investigate a cohort of autistic sib-pairs for submicroscopic chromosomal alterations. We have identified several novel duplications and one novel deletion with strong association with autism.
  • Ponjavic, Vesna, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotype variation within a choroideremia family lacking the entire CHM gene
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Ophthalmic Genetics. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1744-5094. ; 16:4, s. 143-150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Swedish family with choroideremia and a deletion of the CHM gene has been studied with ophthalmological examination, full-field electro-retinography, and DNA analysis in order to characterize the phenotype of the disease. Although all four patients studied had a complete deletion of the gene, they showed a considerable variability regarding the phenotype, including the electroretinogram tracings. Two of the affected males demonstrated a severe form of choroideremia with low or nondetectable ERG recordings, while the other two affected males showed a less severe phenotype with only a slight reduction of the ERG amplitudes. The variation of the clinical phenotype among family members carrying the same mutation indicates that the severity of choroideremia is not solely a function of the CHM gene.
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