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Sökning: WFRF:(van Duin M)

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  • van Haarlem, M. P., et al. (författare)
  • LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 556:August, s. article no. A2-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.
  • De Gasperin, F., et al. (författare)
  • M 87 at metre wavelengths: the LOFAR picture
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 547, s. article no. 56-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. M87 is a giant elliptical galaxy located in the centre of the Virgo cluster, which harbours a supermassive black hole of mass 6.4x10(9) M-circle dot, whose activity is responsible for the extended (80 kpc) radio lobes that surround the galaxy. The energy generated by matter falling onto the central black hole is ejected and transferred to the intra-cluster medium via a relativistic jet and morphologically complex systems of buoyant bubbles, which rise towards the edges of the extended halo. Aims. To place constraints on past activity cycles of the active nucleus, images of M 87 were produced at low radio frequencies never explored before at these high spatial resolution and dynamic range. To disentangle different synchrotron models and place constraints on source magnetic field, age and energetics, we also performed a detailed spectral analysis of M 87 extended radio-halo. Methods. We present the first observations made with the new Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) of M 87 at frequencies down to 20 MHz. Three observations were conducted, at 15-30 MHz, 30-77 MHz and 116-162 MHz. We used these observations together with archival data to produce a low-frequency spectral index map and to perform a spectral analysis in the wide frequency range 30 MHz-10 GHz. Results. We do not find any sign of new extended emissions; on the contrary the source appears well confined by the high pressure of the intra-cluster medium. A continuous injection of relativistic electrons is the model that best fits our data, and provides a scenario in which the lobes are still supplied by fresh relativistic particles from the active galactic nuclei. We suggest that the discrepancy between the low-frequency radio-spectral slope in the core and in the halo implies a strong adiabatic expansion of the plasma as soon as it leaves the core area. The extended halo has an equipartition magnetic field strength of similar or equal to 10 mu G, which increases to similar or equal to 13 mu G in the zones where the particle flows are more active. The continuous injection model for synchrotron ageing provides an age for the halo of similar or equal to 40 Myr, which in turn provides a jet kinetic power of 6-10 x 10(44) erg s(-1).
  • Offringa, A. R., et al. (författare)
  • The LOFAR radio environment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 549
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. This paper discusses the spectral occupancy for performing radio astronomy with the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), with a focus on imaging observations.Methods. We have analysed the radio-frequency interference (RFI) situation in two 24-h surveys with Dutch LOFAR stations, covering 30-78 MHz with low-band antennas and 115-163 MHz with high-band antennas. This is a subset of the full frequency range of LOFAR. The surveys have been observed with a 0.76 kHz/1 s resolution.Results. We measured the RFI occupancy in the low and high frequency sets to be 1.8% and 3.2% respectively. These values are found to be representative values for the LOFAR radio environment. Between day and night, there is no significant difference in the radio environment. We find that lowering the current observational time and frequency resolutions of LOFAR results in a slight loss of flagging accuracy. At LOFAR's nominal resolution of 0.76 kHz and 1 s, the false-positives rate is about 0.5%. This rate increases approximately linearly when decreasing the data frequency resolution.Conclusions. Currently, by using an automated RFI detection strategy, the LOFAR radio environment poses no perceivable problems for sensitive observing. It remains to be seen if this is still true for very deep observations that integrate over tens of nights, but the situation looks promising. Reasons for the low impact of RFI are the high spectral and time resolution of LOFAR; accurate detection methods; strong filters and high receiver linearity; and the proximity of the antennas to the ground. We discuss some strategies that can be used once low-level RFI starts to become apparent. It is important that the frequency range of LOFAR remains free of broadband interference, such as DAB stations and windmills.
  • Stappers, B. W., et al. (författare)
  • Observing pulsars and fast transients with LOFAR
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 530
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low frequency radio waves, while challenging to observe, are a rich source of information about pulsars. The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new radio interferometer operating in the lowest 4 octaves of the ionospheric "radio window": 10-240 MHz, that will greatly facilitate observing pulsars at low radio frequencies. Through the huge collecting area, long baselines, and flexible digital hardware, it is expected that LOFAR will revolutionize radio astronomy at the lowest frequencies visible from Earth. LOFAR is a next-generation radio telescope and a pathfinder to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), in that it incorporates advanced multi-beaming techniques between thousands of individual elements. We discuss the motivation for low-frequency pulsar observations in general and the potential of LOFAR in addressing these science goals. We present LOFAR as it is designed to perform high-time-resolution observations of pulsars and other fast transients, and outline the various relevant observing modes and data reduction pipelines that are already or will soon be implemented to facilitate these observations. A number of results obtained from commissioning observations are presented to demonstrate the exciting potential of the telescope. This paper outlines the case for low frequency pulsar observations and is also intended to serve as a reference for upcoming pulsar/fast transient science papers with LOFAR.
  • Sobey, C., et al. (författare)
  • LOFAR discovery of a quiet emission mode in PSR B0823+26
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 451, s. 2493-2506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PSR B0823+26, a 0.53-s radio pulsar, displays a host of emission phenomena over time-scales of seconds to (at least) hours, including nulling, subpulse drifting, and mode-changing. Studying pulsars like PSR B0823+26 provides further insight into the relationship between these various emission phenomena and what they might teach us about pulsar magnetospheres. Here we report on the LOFAR (Low-Frequency Array) discovery that PSR B0823+26 has a weak and sporadically emitting ‘quiet’ (Q) emission mode that is over 100 times weaker (on average) and has a nulling fraction forty-times greater than that of the more regularly-emitting ‘bright’ (B) mode. Previously, the pulsar has been undetected in the Q mode, and was assumed to be nulling continuously. PSR B0823+26 shows a further decrease in average flux just before the transition into the B mode, and perhaps truly turns off completely at these times. Furthermore, simultaneous observations taken with the LOFAR, Westerbork, Lovell, and Effelsberg telescopes between 110 MHz and 2.7 GHz demonstrate that the transition between the Q mode and B mode occurs within one single rotation of the neutron star, and that it is concurrent across the range of frequencies observed.
  • Heinonen, Ilkka, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Cellular, mitochondrial and molecular alterations associate with early left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in a porcine model of diabetic metabolic derangement
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of diabetic metabolic derangement (DMetD) has increased dramatically over the last decades. Although there is increasing evidence that DMetD is associated with cardiac dysfunction, the early DMetD-induced myocardial alterations remain incompletely understood. Here, we studied early DMetD-related cardiac changes in a clinically relevant large animal model. DMetD was established in adult male Göttingen miniswine by streptozotocin injections and a high-fat, high-sugar diet, while control animals remained on normal pig chow. Five months later left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements, followed by comprehensive biochemical, molecular and histological analyses. Robust DMetD developed, evidenced by hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. DMetD resulted in altered LV nitrosoredox balance, increased superoxide production—principally due to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling—reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, alterations in myocardial gene-expression— particularly genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism—and mitochondrial dysfunction. These abnormalities were accompanied by increased passive force of isolated cardiomyocytes, and impaired LV diastolic function, evidenced by reduced LV peak untwist velocity and increased E/e′. However, LV weight, volume, collagen content, and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were unchanged at this stage of DMetD. In conclusion, DMetD, in a clinically relevant large-animal model results in myocardial oxidative stress, eNOS uncoupling and reduced NO production, together with an altered metabolic gene expression profle and mitochondrial dysfunction. These molecular alterations are associated with stifening of the cardiomyocytes and early diastolic dysfunction before any structural cardiac remodeling occurs. Therapies should be directed to ameliorate these early DMetDinduced myocardial changes to prevent the development of overt cardiac failure. © 2020, The Author(s).
  • Went, Molly, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic correlation between multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia provides evidence for shared aetiology
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Blood Cancer Journal. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2044-5385. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clustering of different types of B-cell malignancies in families raises the possibility of shared aetiology. To examine this, we performed cross-trait linkage disequilibrium (LD)-score regression of multiple myeloma (MM) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets, totalling 11,734 cases and 29,468 controls. A significant genetic correlation between these two B-cell malignancies was shown (Rg = 0.4, P = 0.0046). Furthermore, four of the 45 known CLL risk loci were shown to associate with MM risk and five of the 23 known MM risk loci associate with CLL risk. By integrating eQTL, Hi-C and ChIP-seq data, we show that these pleiotropic risk loci are enriched for B-cell regulatory elements and implicate B-cell developmental genes. These data identify shared biological pathways influencing the development of CLL and, MM and further our understanding of the aetiological basis of these B-cell malignancies.
  • Mitchell, Jonathan S., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P = 1.31 x 10(-8)), 6q21 (rs9372120, P = 9.09 x 10(-15)), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P = 9.71 x 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P = 4.20 x 10(-11)), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P = 1.72 x 10(-13)), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P = 1.77 x 10(-8)), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P = 5.00 x 10(-12)) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P = 1.36 x 10(-13)), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 14
  • [1]2Nästa

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