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  • Waldheim, E., et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life, fatigue and mood in patients with SLE and high levels of pain compared to controls and patients with low levels of pain
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lupus. - London : SAGE Publications. - 0961-2033 .- 1477-0962. ; 22:11, s. 1118-1127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The objective of this paper is to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fatigue, anxiety and depression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and higher levels of pain and to compare them to patients with lower levels of pain and controls. Method Patients were dichotomized into two groups based on SLE-related pain score on the visual analog scale (VAS): low-pain group (76%, n=64, VAS 0-39mm) and high-pain group (24%, n=20, VAS 40-100mm). Sex- and age-matched controls were randomly selected from the general population. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires regarding self-reported pain, HRQoL, fatigue, anxiety and depression. Medical assessments also were recorded. Result Fatigue score in the high-pain group (median, 36.5; interquartile range (IQR), 32.5-39.7) was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to the low-pain group (median, 23; IQR, 14.6-34.1), as well as scores for anxiety (median, 9; IQR, 6.5-11.5) and depression (median, 7.5; IQR, 5.5-9) (p<0.001). The high-pain group had significantly lower scores compared to the low-pain group in all dimensions in the SF-36 (p0.001-0.007). No statistical differences were detected between the low-pain group and controls in any measurement except for the dimensions physical function, general health, vitality and social function in SF-36. Conclusion Patients with SLE scoring higher degrees of pain were burdened with more fatigue, anxiety and depression and lower levels of HRQoL compared to patients with lower levels of pain who did not differ significantly from the general population in most dimensions. These results elucidate the importance of identifying patients with higher degrees of pain who are probably in need of more extensive multidimensional interventions to decrease symptom burden.
  • Hetland, M. L., et al. (författare)
  • Active conventional treatment and three different biological treatments in early rheumatoid arthritis: phase IV investigator initiated, randomised, observer blinded clinical trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Bmj-British Medical Journal. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1756-1833. ; 371
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare benefits and harms of three biological treatments with different modes of action versus active conventional treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN Investigator initiated, randomised, open label, blinded assessor, multiarm, phase IV study. SETTING Twenty nine rheumatology departments in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands, and Iceland between 2012 and 2018. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged 18 years and older with treatment naive rheumatoid arthritis, symptom duration less than 24 months, moderate to severe disease activity, and rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibody positivity, or increased C reactive protein. INTERVENTIONS Randomised 1:1:1:1, stratified by country, sex, and anti-citrullinated protein antibody status. All participants started methotrexate combined with (a) active conventional treatment (either prednisolone tapered to 5 mg/day, or sulfasalazine combined with hydroxychloroquine and intraarticular corticosteroids), (b) certolizumab pegol, (c) abatacept, or (d) tocilizumab. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was adjusted clinical disease activity index remission (CDAI <= 2.8) at 24 weeks with active conventional treatment as the reference. Key secondary outcomes and analyses included CDAI remission at 12 weeks and over time, other remission criteria, a non-inferiority analysis, and harms. RESULTS 812 patients underwent randomisation. The mean age was 54.3 years (standard deviation 14.7) and 68.8% were women. Baseline disease activity score of 28 joints was 5.0 (standard deviation 1.1). Adjusted 24 week CDAI remission rates were 42.7% (95% confidence interval 36.1% to 49.3%) for active conventional treatment, 46.5% (39.9% to 53.1%) for certolizumab pegol, 52.0% (45.5% to 58.6%) for abatacept, and 42.1% (35.3% to 48.8%) for tocilizumab. Corresponding absolute differences were 3.9% (95% confidence interval -5.5% to 13.2%) for certolizumab pegol, 9.4% (0.1% to 18.7%) for abatacept, and -0.6% (-10.1% to 8.9%) for tocilizumab. Key secondary outcomes showed no major differences among the four treatments. Differences in CDAI remission rates for active conventional treatment versus certolizumab pegol and tocilizumab, but not abatacept, remained within the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 15% (per protocol population). The total number of serious adverse events was 13 (percentage of patients who experienced at least one event 5.6%) for active conventional treatment, 20 (8.4%) for certolizumab pegol, 10 (4.9%) for abatacept, and 10 (4.9%) for tocilizumab. Eleven patients treated with abatacept stopped treatment early compared with 20-23 patients in the other arms. CONCLUSIONS All four treatments achieved high remission rates. Higher CDAI remission rate was observed for abatacept versus active conventional treatment, but not for certolizumab pegol or tocilizumab versus active conventional treatment. Other remission rates were similar across treatments. Non-inferiority analysis indicated that active conventional treatment was non-inferior to certolizumab pegol and tocilizumab, but not to abatacept. The results highlight the efficacy and safety of active conventional treatment based on methotrexate combined with corticosteroids, with nominally better results for abatacept, in treatment naive early rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Waldheim, E., et al. (författare)
  • Extent and characteristics of self-reported pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Lupus. - London : SAGE Publications. - 0961-2033 .- 1477-0962. ; 22:2, s. 136-143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Patients' own experiences of subjective symptoms are scarcely covered, and the objective of this study was to investigate the extent and characteristics of self-reported pain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: This study comprised a cross-sectional design where 84 patients with SLE were asked to complete self-assessments: visual analogue scale of pain and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Medical assessments, including ESR, SLAM, SLEDAI, and SLICC, were also performed. Results: Of the study population, 24% reported higher levels of SLE-related pain (>= 40 mm on VAS). This group had a significantly shorter disease duration, higher ESR, and higher disease activity, according to the SLAM and SLEDAI, compared to the rest of the study population. This group mainly used the words "tender," "aching," and "burning" to describe moderate and severe pain, and they used a greater number of words to describe their pain. Of the patients with higher levels of pain, 70% reported their present pain as "distressing." The most common pain location for the whole patient population was the joints. Patients rated their disease activity significantly higher than physicians did. Conclusion: These findings expand the current knowledge of the extent of SLE-related pain and how patients perceive this pain. The results can contribute to affirmative, supportive and caring communication and especially highlight SLE-related pain in patients with a short disease duration and high disease activity. Lupus (2013) 22, 136-143.
  • Askling, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Time-dependent increase in risk of hospitalisation with infection among Swedish RA patients treated with TNF antagonists
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 66:10, s. 1339-1344
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES:The degree to which treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists may be associated with increased risks for serious infections is unclear. An observational cohort study was performed using prospectively collected data from the Swedish Biologics Register (ARTIS) and other national Swedish registers.METHODS:First, in the ARTIS, all 4167 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients starting TNF antagonist treatment between 1999 and 2003 were identified. Secondly, in the Swedish Inpatient Register, all individuals hospitalised for any reason and who also carried a diagnosis of RA, between 1964 and 2003 (n = 44 946 of whom 2692 also occurred in ARTIS), were identified. Thirdly, in the Swedish Inpatient Register, all hospitalisations listing an infection between 1999 and 2003 were identified. By cross-referencing these three data sets, RRs for hospitalisation with infection associated with TNF antagonist treatment were calculated within the cohort of 44 946 RA patients, using Cox regression taking sex, age, geography, co-morbidity and use of inpatient care into account.RESULTS:Among the 4167 patients treated with TNF antagonists, 367 hospitalisations with infections occurred during 7776 person-years. Within the cohort of 44 496 RA patients, the RR for infection associated with TNF antagonists was 1.43 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.73) during the first year of treatment, 1.15 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.51) during the second year of treatment, and 0.82 (95% CI 0.62 to 1.08) for subjects remaining on their first TNF antagonist treatment after 2 years.CONCLUSION:Treatment with TNF antagonists may be associated with a small to moderate increase in risk of hospitalisation with infection, which disappears with increasing treatment duration.
  • Simard, Julia F., et al. (författare)
  • Ten years with biologics : to whom do data on effectiveness and safety apply?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1462-0324 .- 1462-0332. ; 50:1, s. 204-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methods. We identified all adult patients with RA (n = 9612), PsA (n = 1417) and other SpA (n = 1652) initiating a first biologic therapy between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2008, registered in the Swedish Biologics Register (ARTIS), including information on demographics, disease characteristics and 1-year risk of first-line treatment discontinuation. Results. Over calendar time, measures of disease activity at start declined substantially for all indications, and diminished between first-, second- and third-line therapy starts. One-year risks of first-line therapy discontinuation increased. Switchers to anti-TNF and non-TNF biologics had different comorbidities. Despite < 50% drug retention at 5 years, most patients remained exposed to some biologic. Conclusions. The trends in baseline characteristics and drug retention underscores that any effects of biologics, including comparison between different biologics, must be interpreted in light of the characteristics of the population treated. The observed differences further call for continued vigilance to properly evaluate the safety profiles of biologic treatments as they are currently used. Exposure to multiple biologics presents a challenge for attribution of long-term effects.
  • Wirestam, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • Osteopontin and disease activity in patients with recent-onset systemic Lupus Erythematosus : Results from the SLICC Inception Cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rheumatology. - : J Rheumatol Publ Co. - 0315-162X .- 1499-2752. ; 46:5, s. 492-500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. In cross-sectional studies, elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels have been proposed to reflect, and/or precede, progressive organ damage and disease severity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed, in a cohort of patients with recent-onset SLE, to determine whether raised serum OPN levels precede damage and/or are associated with disease activity or certain disease phenotypes. Methods. We included 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who had 5 years of followup data available. All patients fulfilled the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Baseline sera from patients and from age- and sex-matched population-based controls were analyzed for OPN using ELISA. Disease activity and damage were assessed at each annual followup visit using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), respectively. Results. Compared to controls, baseline OPN was raised 4-fold in SLE cases (p < 0.0001). After relevant adjustments in a binary logistic regression model, OPN levels failed to significantly predict global damage accrual defined as SDI ≥ 1 at 5 years. However, baseline OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K at enrollment into the cohort (r = 0.27, p < 0.0001), and patients with high disease activity (SLEDAI-2K ≥ 5) had raised serum OPN (p < 0.0001). In addition, higher OPN levels were found in patients with persistent disease activity (p = 0.0006), in cases with renal involvement (p < 0.0001) and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01). Conclusion. The performance of OPN to predict development of organ damage was not impressive. However, OPN associated significantly with lupus nephritis and with raised disease activity at enrollment, as well as over time.
  • Szepietowski, Jacek C., et al. (författare)
  • Phase I, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multiple Intravenous, Dose-Ascending Study of Sirukumab in Cutaneous or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1529-0131. ; 65:10, s. 2661-2671
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveWe undertook a 2-part, phase I, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of multiple intravenous infusions of sirukumab, a human anti-interleukin-6 monoclonal antibody, in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MethodsIn part A, patients with histologically confirmed CLE were randomized to 4 infusions of placebo or 1, 4, or 10 mg/kg sirukumab every 2 weeks. In part B, SLE patients diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology criteria with a score of 5-12 on the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment version of the SLE Disease Activity Index were randomized to 4 infusions of placebo or 10 mg/kg sirukumab every 2 weeks. ResultsWe treated 31 CLE patients (23 with sirukumab, 8 with placebo) and 15 SLE patients (10 with sirukumab, 5 with placebo). Adverse events (AEs) occurred more often with sirukumab than placebo in CLE patients (91% versus 63%) and in SLE patients (90% versus 80%). Sirukumab led to sustained, dose-independent decreases in white blood cell counts, absolute neutrophil counts (neutropenia), and platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) and to minor elevations in total cholesterol levels. The majority of infections were mild respiratory infections. which were reported similarly across CLE cohorts but more often in sirukumab-treated than in placebo-treated SLE patients. Two serious AEs of infection occurred (pneumonia in the 10 mg/kg-treated group and iatrogenic wound infection in the 4 mg/kg-treated group). Sirukumab showed linear pharmacokinetics in CLE patients. Systemic exposure and half-life were comparable between CLE and SLE patients. No patient developed antibodies to sirukumab through 22 weeks. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A mean concentrations were suppressed with sirukumab from week 1 to week 14. ConclusionTreatment with intravenous sirukumab infusions was generally well tolerated in both CLE and SLE patients with mild, stable, active disease. Sirukumab demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range studied and comparable systemic exposure and half-life in CLE and SLE patients.
  • Askling, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer Risk in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha Therapies Does the Risk Change With the Time Since Start of Treatment?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 60:11, s. 3180-3189
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To determine the short-term and medium-term risks of cancer in patients receiving antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF alpha) therapies that have proven effective in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions. Methods. By linking together data from the Swedish Biologics Register, Swedish registers of RA, and the Swedish Cancer Register, we identified and analyzed for cancer occurrence a national cohort of 6,366 patients with RA who first started anti-TNF therapy between January 1999 and July 2006. As comparators, we used a national biologics-naive RA cohort (n = 61,160), a cohort of RA patients newly starting methotrexate (n = 5,989), a cohort of RA patients newly starting disease-modifying antirheumatic drug combination therapy (n = 1,838), and the general population of Sweden. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox regression analyses, examining overall RR as well as RR by time since the first start of anti-TNF therapy, by the duration of active anti-TNF therapy, and by the anti-TNF agent received. Results. During 25,693 person-years of followup in 6,366 patients newly starting anti-TNF, 240 first cancers occurred, yielding an RR of 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.86-1.15) versus the biologics-naive RA cohort, and similar RRs versus the other 2 RA comparators. RRs did not increase with increasing time since the start of anti-TNF therapy, nor with the cumulative duration of active anti-TNF therapy. During the first year following the first treatment start, but not thereafter, dissimilar cancer risks for adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab were observed. Conclusion. During the first 6 years after the start of anti-TNF therapy in routine care, no overall elevation of cancer risk and no increase with followup time were observed.
  • Arkema, Elizabeth V, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis : a national population-based study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 71:11, s. 1865-1867
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but serious disease, have been reported in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in association with biological therapy, but little is known about the incidence of PML in patients with RA in the absence of treatment exposure.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence rate of PML in patients with RA compared with the general population, with and without exposure to biological agents.METHODS: Patients with adult onset RA, exposure to biological agents and a diagnosis of PML from 1999 through 2009 were identified from national registries and linked using each Swedish resident's unique personal identification number. General population comparators matched on age, sex and county were also identified. Crude and age- and sex-standardised incidence rates (cases per 100 000 person-years) were calculated with 95% CI.RESULTS: 66 278 patients with RA and 286 949 general population comparators were included in the study. The incidence rate of PML in the overall RA population was 1.0 (95% CI 0.3 to 2.5) compared with 0.3 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.6) in the general population. The difference in incidence rate was 0.7 (95% CI -0.3 to 17). Among all patients exposed to biological agents, only one patient was diagnosed with PML.CONCLUSION: Data from this national population-based cohort study suggest that patients with RA may have an increased rate of PML compared with the general population.
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