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  • Knutsson, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI with a prebolus contrast agent administration design for improved absolute quantification of perfusion.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1522-2594. ; 72:4, s. 996-1006
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Arterial partial-volume effects (PVEs) often hamper reproducible absolute quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) obtained by dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI). The aim of this study was to examine whether arterial PVEs in DSC-MRI data can be minimized by rescaling the arterial input function (AIF) using a sagittal-sinus venous output function obtained following a prebolus administration of a low dose of contrast agent.
  • Salvadó, Gemma, et al. (författare)
  • The protective gene dose effect of the APOE ε2 allele on gray matter volume in cognitively unimpaired individuals
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260. ; 18:7, s. 1383-1395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Harboring two copies of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2 allele strongly protects against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effect of this genotype on gray matter (GM) volume in cognitively unimpaired individuals has not yet been described. Methods: Multicenter brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from cognitively unimpaired ε2 homozygotes were matched (1:1) against all other APOE genotypes for relevant confounders (n = 223). GM volumes of ε2 genotypic groups were compared to each other and to the reference group (APOE ε3/ε3). Results: Carrying at least one ε2 allele was associated with larger GM volumes in brain areas typically affected by AD and also in areas associated with cognitive resilience. APOE ε2 homozygotes, but not APOE ε2 heterozygotes, showed larger GM volumes in areas related to successful aging. Discussion: In addition to the known resistance against amyloid-β deposition, the larger GM volumes in key brain regions may confer APOE ε2 homozygotes additional protection against AD-related cognitive decline.
  • Berron, David, et al. (författare)
  • Medial temporal lobe connectivity and its associations with cognition in early Alzheimer's disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950. ; 143:3, s. 1233-1248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human episodic memory critically depends on subregions of the medial temporal lobe, which are part of functional brain systems such as the anterior-temporal and the posterior-medial system. Here we analysed how Alzheimer's pathology affects functional connectivity within these systems. Data from 256 amyloid-b-negative cognitively unimpaired, 103 amyloid-b-positive cognitively unimpaired, and 83 amyloid-b-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment were analysed. Amyloid-b and tau pathology were measured using the CSF amyloid-b42/40 ratio and phosphorylated tau, respectively. We found that amyloid-b-positive cognitively unimpaired individuals were mainly characterized by decreased functional connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and regions in the anterior-temporal system, most prominently between left perirhinal/entorhinal cortices and medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, correlation analysis in this group revealed decreasing functional connectivity between bilateral perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, anterior hippocampus and posterior-medial regions with increasing levels of phosphorylated tau. The amyloid-b-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment mostly exhibited reduced connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and posterior-medial regions, predominantly between the anterior hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, they showed hyperconnectivity within the medial temporal lobe and its immediate proximity. Lower medial temporal-cortical functional connectivity networks resulting from the group comparisons of cognitively unimpaired individuals were associated with reduced memory performance and more rapid longitudinal memory decline as shown by linear mixed-effects regression analysis. Finally, we found that reduced medial temporal-cortical connectivity in mildly cognitively impaired individuals was related to reduced entorhinal thickness and white matter integrity of the parahippocampal cingulum and the fornix. No such relationships were found in cognitively unimpaired individuals. In conclusion, our findings show that the earliest changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease might involve decreased connectivity within the anterior-temporal system, and early changes in connectivity might be related to memory impairment, but not to structural changes. With disease progression and increased tau pathology, medial temporal functional connectivity with posterior-medial regions seems to be increasingly impaired. In individuals with mild cognitive impairment, reduced functional connectivity is associated with structural brain changes as well as the emergence of locally increased connectivity patterns. Thus, functional connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and the anterior-temporal and posterior-medial system could serve as stage-specific functional markers in early Alzheimer's disease.
  • Borland, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • The age-related effect on cognitive performance in cognitively healthy elderly is mainly caused by underlying AD pathology or cerebrovascular lesions : implications for cutoffs regarding cognitive impairment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1758-9193. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: As research in treatments for neurocognitive diseases progresses, there is an increasing need to identify cognitive decline in the earliest stages of disease for initiation of treatment in addition to determining the efficacy of treatment. For early identification, accurate cognitive tests cutoff values for cognitive impairment are essential. METHODS: We conducted a study on 297 cognitively healthy elderly people from the BioFINDER study and created subgroups excluding people with signs of underlying neuropathology, i.e., abnormal cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] β-amyloid or phosphorylated tau, CSF neurofilament light (neurodegeneration), or cerebrovascular pathology. We compared cognitive test results between groups and examined the age effect on cognitive test results. RESULTS: In our subcohort without any measurable pathology (n = 120), participants achieved better test scores and significantly stricter cutoffs for cognitive impairment for almost all the examined tests. The age effect in this subcohort disappeared for all cognitive tests, apart from some attention/executive tests, predominantly explained by the exclusion of cerebrovascular pathology. CONCLUSION: Our study illustrates a new approach to establish normative data that could be useful to identify earlier cognitive changes in preclinical dementias. Future studies need to investigate if there is a genuine effect of healthy aging on cognitive tests or if this age effect is a proxy for higher prevalence of preclinical neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Delavaran, Hossein, et al. (författare)
  • Proximity of brain infarcts to regions of endogenous neurogenesis and involvement of striatum in ischaemic stroke.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1351-5101.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Clinical stroke trials with stem cell-based approaches aiming for trophic actions, modulation of inflammation and neuroprotection are ongoing. However, experimental studies also suggest that neuronal replacement by grafted neural stem cells (NSCs) and possibly by endogenous NSCs from the subventricular zone (SVZ) may restore function in the stroke-damaged striatum. To evaluate the potential clinical impact of these findings, we analyzed the spatial relationship of infarcts to the SVZ and the proportion of individuals with striatal lesions in a consecutive series of ischaemic stroke patients. METHODS: Patients aged 20-75 years with first-ever ischaemic stroke underwent DW-MRI of the brain within 4 days after stroke onset. We analyzed location, size, number of acute focal ischaemic abnormalities and their spatial relationship to the SVZ. Stroke severity was assessed using NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS). RESULTS: Of 108 included patients, the distance from the nearest margin of the infarct(s) to the SVZ was ≤2 mm in 51/102 patients with visible ischaemic lesions on DW-MRI. Twenty-four patients had involvement of striatum. Eight of these had predominantly striatal lesions, that is >50% of the total ischaemic lesion volume was located in caudate nucleus and/or putamen. These 8 patients had a median NIHSS of 3. CONCLUSIONS: Many stroke patients have infarcts located close to the SVZ, providing some supportive evidence that optimized endogenous neurogenesis may have therapeutic potential. However, predominantly striatal infarcts are rare and tend to give mild neurological deficits, indicating that striatum should not be the primary target for neuronal replacement efforts in humans.
  • Delgado, Anna Falk, et al. (författare)
  • Glioma grade discrimination with MR diffusion kurtosis imaging : A meta-Analysis of diagnostic accuracy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Radiology. - : Radiological Society of North America. - 0033-8419 .- 1527-1315. ; 287:1, s. 119-127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To assess the diagnostic test accuracy and sources of heterogeneity for the discriminative potential of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) to differentiate low-grade glioma (LGG) (World Health Organization [WHO] grade II) from high-grade glioma (HGG) (WHO grade III or IV). Materials and Methods: The Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, and the Web of Science Core Collection were systematically searched by two librarians. Retrieved hits were screened for inclusion and were evaluated with the revised tool for quality assessment for diagnostic accuracy studies (commonly known as QUADAS-2) by two researchers. Statistical analysis comprised a random-effects model with associated heterogeneity analysis for mean differences in mean kurtosis (MK) in patients with LGG or HGG. A bivariate restricted maximum likelihood estimation method was used to describe the summary receiver operating characteristics curve and bivariate meta-regression. Results: Ten studies involving 430 patients were included. The mean difference in MK between LGG and HGG was 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11, 0.22) with a z score equal to 5.86 (P < .001). The statistical heterogeneity was explained by glioma subtype, echo time, and the proportion of recurrent glioma versus primary glioma. The pooled area under the curve was 0.94 for discrimination of HGG from LGG, with 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.92) sensitivity and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.96) specificity. Heterogeneity was driven by neuropathologic subtype and DKI technique. Conclusion: MK shows high diagnostic accuracy in the discrimination of LGG from HGG.
  • Ekberg, Olle, et al. (författare)
  • Ipsilateral multiple groin hernias
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Surgery. - : Elsevier. - 1532-7361. ; 115:5, s. 557-562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND. Recurrence rates after surgical repair of groin hernia vary between 3% and 20%. One possible reason for recurrent hernias are ipsilateral multiple hernias, which might have been overlooked at the primary operation. METHODS. In the present series 1010 patients with unclear groin pain underwent herniography. RESULTS. A total of 314 patients had hernias, and seventy-one (23%) of these had multiple hernias. Ipsilateral multiple hernias were found in 18 (6%) patients. Ipsilateral multiple hernias were present in 9 (6%) of 144 patients with an indirect hernia, in 17 (12%) of 144 patients with a direct hernia, in 5 (21%) of 24 patients with a femoral hernia, and in 3 (23%) of 13 patients with an obturator hernia. The hernias were of indirect, direct, femoral, and obturator types. CONCLUSIONS. The frequency of ipsilateral multiple hernias is much higher than the frequency reported during herniorrhaphy. Such overlooked ipsilateral multiple groin hernias may account for some of the so-called recurrences after herniorrhaphy. Therefore a careful exploration of the groin is mandatory. Preoperative herniography may also prove to be useful in patients with recurrent groin symptoms after herniorrhaphy.
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