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Sökning: WFRF:(Abramson Michael J.) > (2020-2022)

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  • Chen, Gongbo, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality risk attributable to wildfire-related PM2·5 pollution : a global time series study in 749 locations
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Planetary Health. - : Elsevier. - 2542-5196. ; 5:9, s. e579-e587
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Many regions of the world are now facing more frequent and unprecedentedly large wildfires. However, the association between wildfire-related PM2·5 and mortality has not been well characterised. We aimed to comprehensively assess the association between short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 and mortality across various regions of the world.METHODS: For this time series study, data on daily counts of deaths for all causes, cardiovascular causes, and respiratory causes were collected from 749 cities in 43 countries and regions during 2000-16. Daily concentrations of wildfire-related PM2·5 were estimated using the three-dimensional chemical transport model GEOS-Chem at a 0·25° × 0·25° resolution. The association between wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure and mortality was examined using a quasi-Poisson time series model in each city considering both the current-day and lag effects, and the effect estimates were then pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Based on these pooled effect estimates, the population attributable fraction and relative risk (RR) of annual mortality due to acute wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure was calculated.FINDINGS: 65·6 million all-cause deaths, 15·1 million cardiovascular deaths, and 6·8 million respiratory deaths were included in our analyses. The pooled RRs of mortality associated with each 10 μg/m3 increase in the 3-day moving average (lag 0-2 days) of wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure were 1·019 (95% CI 1·016-1·022) for all-cause mortality, 1·017 (1·012-1·021) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1·019 (1·013-1·025) for respiratory mortality. Overall, 0·62% (95% CI 0·48-0·75) of all-cause deaths, 0·55% (0·43-0·67) of cardiovascular deaths, and 0·64% (0·50-0·78) of respiratory deaths were annually attributable to the acute impacts of wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure during the study period.INTERPRETATION: Short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 was associated with increased risk of mortality. Urgent action is needed to reduce health risks from the increasing wildfires.
  • Madsen, Marie Kjær, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of farming environment on asthma : time dependent or universal?
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - : Springer Nature. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 37:8, s. 779-788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The increasing prevalence of asthma is linked to westernization and urbanization. Farm environments have been associated with a lower risk of asthma development. However, this may not be universal, as the association differs across birth cohorts and farming methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of farm upbringing with asthma in different generations and at different times in history. The study population consisted of three generations: 13,868 subjects participating in the ECRHS in 2010, their 9,638 parents, and their 8,885 offspring participating in RHINESSA in 2013. Information on place of upbringing and self-reported ever asthma was provided via questionnaires. Logistic regression was performed including subgroup analysis stratified by generation and birthyear into ten-year-intervals. The prevalence of asthma increased from 8% among grandparents to 13% among parents and to 18% among offspring. An overall analysis showed an inverse association of farm upbringing on the risk of asthma (OR = 0.64; 95%CI 0.55-0.74). Subgroup analysis stratified into ten-year-intervals showed a tendency towards a more pronounced inverse association between growing up on a farm and asthma among subjects born in the 1940s (0.74; 0.48-1.12), 1950s (0.70; 0.54-0.90) and 1960s (0.70; 0.52-0.93). For subjects born in 1970 and thereafter this association appeared less consistent. While growing up on a farm was associated with a reduced risk of developing asthma in participants born between 1945-1999, this was mainly driven by generations born from 1945 to 1973.
  • Boudier, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure, greenspace and health-related quality of life in the ECRHS study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 849
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and greenspace with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are poorly studied and few studies have accounted for asthma-rhinitis status.OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of air pollution and greenspace with HRQOL and whether asthma and/or rhinitis modify these associations.METHODS: The study was based on the participants in the second (2000-2002, n = 6542) and third (2011-2013, n = 3686) waves of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) including 19 centres. The mean follow-up time was 11.3 years. HRQOL was assessed by the SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS). NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 annual concentrations were estimated at the residential address from existing land-use regression models. Greenspace around the residential address was estimated by the (i) mean of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and by the (ii) presence of green spaces within a 300 m buffer. Associations of each exposure variable with PCS and MCS were assessed by mixed linear regression models, accounting for the multicentre design and repeated data, and adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were stratified by asthma-rhinitis status.RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the ECRHS-II and III participants was 43 (7.1) and 54 (7.2) years, respectively, and 48 % were men. Higher NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were associated with lower MCS (regression coefficients [95%CI] for one unit increase in the inter-quartile range of exposures were -0.69 [-1.23; -0.15], -1.79 [-2.88; -0.70], -1.80 [-2.98; -0.62] respectively). Higher NDVI and presence of forests were associated with higher MCS. No consistent associations were observed for PCS. Similar association patterns were observed regardless of asthma-rhinitis status.CONCLUSION: European adults who resided at places with higher air pollution and lower greenspace were more likely to have lower mental component of HRQOL. Asthma or rhinitis status did not modify these associations.
  • Peralta, Gabriela P., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index and weight change are associated with adult lung function trajectories : the prospective ECRHS study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 75:4, s. 313-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between weight increase and excess lung function decline in young adults followed for short periods. We aimed to estimate lung function trajectories during adulthood from 20-year weight change profiles using data from the population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS).METHODS: We included 3673 participants recruited at age 20-44 years with repeated measurements of weight and lung function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)) in three study waves (1991-93, 1999-2003, 2010-14) until they were 39-67 years of age. We classified subjects into weight change profiles according to baseline body mass index (BMI) categories and weight change over 20 years. We estimated trajectories of lung function over time as a function of weight change profiles using population-averaged generalised estimating equations.RESULTS: In individuals with normal BMI, overweight and obesity at baseline, moderate (0.25-1 kg/year) and high weight gain (>1 kg/year) during follow-up were associated with accelerated FVC and FEV1 declines. Compared with participants with baseline normal BMI and stable weight (±0.25 kg/year), obese individuals with high weight gain during follow-up had -1011 mL (95% CI -1.259 to -763) lower estimated FVC at 65 years despite similar estimated FVC levels at 25 years. Obese individuals at baseline who lost weight (<-0.25 kg/year) exhibited an attenuation of FVC and FEV1 declines. We found no association between weight change profiles and FEV1/FVC decline.CONCLUSION: Moderate and high weight gain over 20 years was associated with accelerated lung function decline, while weight loss was related to its attenuation. Control of weight gain is important for maintaining good lung function in adult life.
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