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Sökning: WFRF:(Allegaert Karel) > (2021)

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1.
  • Elkayal, Omar, et al. (författare)
  • A Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation Study of Posaconazole Oral Suspension in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients : A Short Communication
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0163-4356 .- 1536-3694. ; 43:4, s. 512-518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Posaconazole oral suspension emerged as a promising candidate for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised children. Its pharmacodynamic advantages include a broad-spectrum activity and a favorable safety profile; however, they are overshadowed by its large pharmacokinetic (PK) variability, which might cause subtherapeutic exposure. The aim of this study was to develop a population (pop) PK model based on rich sampling data to better understand the PK of posaconazole oral suspension in pediatric patients. Methods: Data were obtained from a prospective interventional study involving hospitalized pediatric patients with a hematologic malignancy and prophylactically treated with posaconazole oral suspension. After constructing the popPK model, the probability of target attainment (PTA; 100% T >= 0.7 mg/L) for prophylaxis under fixed, body weight-based, and body surface area-based dosing was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results: Fourteen patients contributed 112 posaconazole plasma concentrations. The PK of posaconazole was adequately described by a 1-compartment model with lag time 2.71 hours [13%]; nonlinear bioavailability ED50 99.1 mg/m(2) (fixed); first-order absorption rate constant 0.325 hour(-1) [27%]; apparent volume of distribution 1150 L [34%]; and apparent clearance 15.4 L/h [24%] (similar to 70-kg individual). The bioavailability decreased in the presence of diarrhea and co-treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The unexplained interindividual variability in posaconazole PK remained large. The PTA was <85%, irrespective of the simulated dosing strategy. Patients without diarrhea and not administered a PPI had the highest PTA (85% under the fixed 300-mg dosing 4 times per day). Conclusions: Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended during prophylactic posaconazole therapy in immunocompromised pediatric patients. Large-scale comparative studies are needed to characterize the PK variability between different posaconazole formulations in this cohort.
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2.
  • Elkayal, Omar, et al. (författare)
  • Population pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in maternal and umbilical cord plasma, and simulated exposure in term neonates
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0305-7453 .- 1460-2091. ; 76:12, s. 3229-3236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIntra-partum cefazolin is used to prevent group B Streptococcus (GBS) vertical transmission in mothers allergic to penicillin without a history of anaphylaxis.ObjectivesTo investigate the maternal cefazolin dose–exposure relationship and subsequent maternal and neonatal target attainment at delivery.MethodsData were obtained from 24 healthy, GBS-colonized pregnant women (20–41 years), undergoing vaginal delivery (gestational age ≥37 weeks). During labour, all women received a 2 g cefazolin IV infusion. Eight hours later, eight women received another 1 g in the event of delayed (>8 h) delivery. Next to maternal plasma concentrations (up to 10 per dosing interval, until delivery), venous and arterial umbilical cord concentrations were determined at delivery. Target attainment in maternal/neonatal plasma was set at 1 mg/L for 60% of the dosing interval (unbound cefazolin, worst-case clinical breakpoint). A population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model was built (NONMEM 7.4). ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01295606.ResultsAt delivery, maternal blood and arterial umbilical cord unbound cefazolin concentrations were >1 mg/L in 23/24 (95.8%) and 11/12 (91.7%), respectively. The popPK of cefazolin in pregnant women was described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. Two additional compartments described the venous and arterial umbilical cord concentration data. Cefazolin target attainment was adequate in the studied cohort, where delivery occurred no later than 6.5 h after either the first or the second dose. PopPK simulations showed adequate maternal and umbilical cord exposure for 12 h following the first dose.ConclusionsPopPK simulations showed that standard pre-delivery maternal cefazolin dosing provided adequate target attainment up to the time of delivery.
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3.
  • Smits, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Current knowledge, challenges and innovations in developmental pharmacology: A combined conect4children Expert Group and European Society for Developmental, Perinatal and Paediatric Pharmacology White Paper.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: British journal of clinical pharmacology. - 1365-2125.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Developmental pharmacology describes the impact of maturation on drug disposition (pharmacokinetics, PK) and drug effects (pharmacodynamics, PD) throughout the paediatric age range. This paper, written by a multidisciplinary group of experts, summarizes current knowledge, and provides suggestions to pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies and academicians on how to incorporate the latest knowledge regarding developmental pharmacology and innovative techniques into neonatal and paediatric drug development. Biological aspects of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion throughout development are summarized. Although this area made enormous progress during the last two decades, remaining knowledge gaps were identified. Minimal risk and burden designs allow for optimally informative but minimally invasive PK sampling, while concomitant profiling of drug metabolites may provide additional insight in the unique PK behaviour in children. Furthermore, developmental PD needs to be considered during drug development, which is illustrated by disease- and/or target organ-specific examples. Identifying and testing PD targets and effects in special populations, and application of age- and/or population-specific assessment tools are discussed. Drug development plans also need to incorporate innovative techniques such as preclinical models to study therapeutic strategies, and shift from sequential enrolment of subgroups, to more rational designs. To stimulate appropriate research plans, illustrations of specific PK/PD-related as well as drug safety-related challenges during drug development are provided. The suggestions made in this joint paper of the Innovative Medicines Initiative conect4children Expert group on Developmental Pharmacology and the European Society for Developmental, Perinatal and Paediatric Pharmacology, should facilitate all those involved in drug development.
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