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Sökning: WFRF:(Allegaert Karel) > (2022)

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1.
  • Chu, Wan-Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Allopurinol, its Active Metabolite Oxypurinol, and Biomarkers Hypoxanthine, Xanthine and Uric Acid in Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Neonates.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Pharmacokinetics. - 0312-5963 .- 1179-1926. ; 61:2, s. 321-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Allopurinol, an xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, is a promising intervention that may provide neuroprotection for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Currently, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study (ALBINO, NCT03162653) is investigating the neuroprotective effect of allopurinol in HIE neonates.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to establish the pharmacokinetics (PK) of allopurinol and oxypurinol, and the pharmacodynamics (PD) of both compounds on hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid in HIE neonates. The dosage used and the effect of allopurinol in this population, either or not undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH), were evaluated.METHODS: Forty-six neonates from the ALBINO study and two historical clinical studies were included. All doses were administered on the first day of life. In the ALBINO study (n = 20), neonates received a first dose of allopurinol 20 mg/kg, and, in the case of TH (n = 13), a second dose of allopurinol 10 mg/kg. In the historical cohorts (n = 26), neonates (all without TH) received two doses of allopurinol 20 mg/kg in total. Allopurinol and oxypurinol population PK, and their effects on inhibiting conversions of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid, were assessed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling.RESULTS: Allopurinol and oxypurinol PK were described by two sequential one-compartment models with an autoinhibition effect on allopurinol metabolism by oxypurinol. For allopurinol, clearance (CL) was 0.83 L/h (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-1.09) and volume of distribution (Vd) was 2.43 L (95% CI 2.25-2.63). For metabolite oxypurinol, CL and Vd relative to a formation fraction (fm) were 0.26 L/h (95% CI 0.23-0.3) and 11 L (95% CI 9.9-12.2), respectively. No difference in allopurinol and oxypurinol CL was found between TH and non-TH patients. The effect of allopurinol and oxypurinol on XO inhibition was described by a turnover model of hypoxanthine with sequential metabolites xanthine and uric acid. The combined allopurinol and oxypurinol concentration at the half-maximal XO inhibition was 0.36 mg/L (95% CI 0.31-0.42).CONCLUSION: The PK and PD of allopurinol, oxypurinol, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid in neonates with HIE were described. The dosing regimen applied in the ALBINO trial leads to the targeted XO inhibition in neonates treated with or without TH.
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2.
  • Chu, Wan-Yu, et al. (författare)
  • Semi-mechanistic Modeling of Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, and Uric Acid Metabolism in Asphyxiated Neonates
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Pharmacokinetics. - : Springer Nature. - 0312-5963 .- 1179-1926.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objective: Previously, we developed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of allopurinol, oxypurinol, and biomarkers, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid, in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, in which high initial biomarker levels were observed suggesting an impact of hypoxia. However, the full pharmacodynamics could not be elucidated in our previous study. The current study included additional data from the ALBINO study (NCT03162653) placebo group, aiming to characterize the dynamics of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.Methods: Neonates from the ALBINO study who received allopurinol or placebo mannitol were included. An extended population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was developed based on the mechanism of purine metabolism, where synthesis, salvage, and degradation via xanthine oxidoreductase pathways were described. The initial level of the biomarkers was a combination of endogenous turnover and high disease-related amounts. Model development was accomplished by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM®, version 7.5).Results: In total, 20 neonates treated with allopurinol and 17 neonates treated with mannitol were included in this analysis. Endogenous synthesis of the biomarkers reduced with 0.43% per hour because of precursor exhaustion. Hypoxanthine was readily salvaged or degraded to xanthine with rate constants of 0.5 1/h (95% confidence interval 0.33-0.77) and 0.2 1/h (95% confidence interval 0.09-0.31), respectively. A greater salvage was found in the allopurinol treatment group consistent with its mechanism of action. High hypoxia-induced initial levels of biomarkers were quantified, and were 1.2-fold to 2.9-fold higher in neonates with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy compared with those with mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Half-maximal xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition was achieved with a combined allopurinol and oxypurinol concentration of 0.68 mg/L (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.92), suggesting full xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition during the period studied.Cconclusions: This extended pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model provided an adequate description of the complex hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid metabolism in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, suggesting a positive allopurinol effect on these biomarkers. The impact of hypoxia on their dynamics was characterized, underlining higher hypoxia-related initial exposure with a more severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy status.
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3.
  • Wu, Yunjiao, et al. (författare)
  • Pre- and Postnatal Maturation are Important for Fentanyl Exposure in Preterm and Term Newborns : A Pooled Population Pharmacokinetic Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Clinical Pharmacokinetics. - : Adis International. - 0312-5963. ; 61:3, s. 401-412
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objective: Fentanyl is an opioid commonly used to prevent and treat severe pain in neonates; however, its use is off label and mostly based on bodyweight. Given the limited pharmacokinetic information across the entire neonatal age range, we characterized the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl across preterm and term neonates to individualize dosing. Methods: We pooled data from two previous studies on 164 newborns with a median gestational age of 29.0 weeks (range 23.9–42.3), birthweight of 1055 g (range 390–4245), and postnatal age (PNA) of 1 day (range 0–68). In total, 673 plasma samples upon bolus dosing (69 patients; median dose 2.1 μg/kg, median 2 boluses per patient) or continuous infusions (95 patients; median dose 1.1 μg/kg/h for 30 h) with and without boluses were used for population pharmacokinetic modeling in NONMEM® 7.4. Results: Clearance in neonates with birthweight of 2000 and 3000 g was 2.8- and 5.0-fold the clearance in a neonate with birthweight of 1000 g, respectively. Fentanyl clearance at PNA of 7, 14, and 21 days was 2.7-fold, 3.8-fold, and 4.6-fold the clearance at 1 day, respectively. Bodyweight-based dosing resulted in large differences in fentanyl concentrations. Depending on PNA and birthweight, fentanyl concentrations increased slowly after the start of therapy for both intermittent boluses and continuous infusion and reached a maximum concentration at 12–48 h. Conclusions: As both prenatal and postnatal maturation are important for fentanyl exposure, we propose a birthweight- and PNA-based dosage regimen. To provide rapid analgesia in the first 24 h of treatment, additional loading doses need to be considered.
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