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Sökning: WFRF:(Axelsson Jan 1966 ) > (2020-2022)

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  • Grill, Filip, et al. (författare)
  • Dissecting Motor and Cognitive Component Processes of a Finger-Tapping Task With Hybrid Dopamine Positron Emission Tomography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1662-5161 .- 1662-5161. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Striatal dopamine is involved in facilitation of motor action as well as various cognitive and emotional functions. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the primary imaging method used to investigate dopamine function in humans. Previous PET studies have shown striatal dopamine release during simple finger tapping in both the putamen and the caudate. It is likely that dopamine release in the putamen is related to motor processes while dopamine release in the caudate could signal sustained cognitive component processes of the task, but the poor temporal resolution of PET has hindered firm conclusions. In this study we simultaneously collected [11C]Raclopride PET and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data while participants performed finger tapping, with fMRI being able to isolate activations related to individual tapping events. The results revealed fMRI-PET overlap in the bilateral putamen, which is consistent with a motor component process. Selective PET responses in the caudate, ventral striatum, and right posterior putamen, were also observed but did not overlap with fMRI responses to tapping events, suggesting that these reflect non-motor component processes of finger tapping. Our findings suggest an interplay between motor and non-motor-related dopamine release during simple finger tapping and illustrate the potential of hybrid PET-fMRI in revealing distinct component processes of cognitive functions.
  • Karalija, Nina, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in dopamine integrity and brain structure among healthy older adults : Relationships to episodic memory
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 105, s. 272-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Normal brain aging is a multidimensional process that includes deterioration in various brain structures and functions, with large heterogeneity in patterns and rates of decline. Sex differences have been reported for various cognitive and brain parameters, but little is known in relation to neuromodulatory aspects of brain aging. We examined sex differences in dopamine D2-receptor (D2DR) availability in relation to episodic memory, but also, grey-matter volumes, white-matter lesions, and cerebral perfusion in healthy older adults (n = 181, age: 64-68 years) from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging study. Women had higher D2DR availability in midbrain and left caudate and putamen, as well as superior episodic memory performance. Controlling for left caudate D2DR availability attenuated sex differences in memory performance. In men, lower left caudate D2DR levels were associated with lower cortical perfusion and higher burden of white-matter lesions, as well as with episodic memory performance. However, sex was not a significant moderator of the reported links to D2DR levels. Our findings suggest that sex differences in multiple associations among DA receptor availability, vascular factors, and structural connectivity contribute to sex differences in episodic memory. Future longitudinal studies need to corroborate these patterns by lead-lag associations. This manuscript is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Neuroscience of Healthy and Pathological Aging' edited by Drs. M. N. Rajah, S. Belleville, and R. Cabeza. 
  • Constantinescu, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • Persons with suspicious onset of multiple sclerosis but with undetermined diagnosis had persistent lower cognition and reduced quality of life
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. - 2211-0348. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Backgound: Differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) includes a variety of disorders and misdiagnosis is common. Objective: To follow-up persons with suspected onset of MS but in whom the diagnostic investigation was negative. Methods: In a prospective study including 271 persons with clinical features of suspected MS onset, 136 persons were diagnosed with MS or clinically isolated syndrome (PwMS), 46 had other disorders, and 89 persons had a negative diagnostic work-up, i.e. persons with undetermined diagnosis (PwUD). They underwent diagnostic reassessment, and those who remained without a diagnosis were investigated for signs of pathology including cognitive tests and assessments of quality of life (QoL). Results were compared with those of PwMS and 24 age and sex matched healthy controls (HC). Results: After reassement 55 (20%) persons still had undetermined diagnosis (PwUD). They had similar age and gender distribution as PwMS. In 76% of PwUD, the suspected clinical onset included sensory symptoms. PwUD and PwMS scored similarly in cognitive tests and QoL but significantly lower than HC. At 3 years follow-up, PwMS and PwUD improved in most test parameters, but PwUD scored lower than PwMS in cognition. Conclusion: PwUD constituted the dominating differential diagnosis in persons with suspected clinical onset of MS. QoL and cognition were comparable with those of PwMS but significantly lower than in HC.
  • Giacobbo, B., et al. (författare)
  • The Aged Striatum : Evidence of Molecular and Structural Changes Using a Longitudinal Multimodal Approach in Mice
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1663-4365 .- 1663-4365. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study the aging human brain requires significant resources and time. Thus, mice models of aging can provide insight into changes in brain biological functions at a fraction of the time when compared to humans. This study aims to explore changes in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor availability and of gray matter density in striatum during aging in mice and to evaluate whether longitudinal imaging in mice may serve as a model for normal brain aging to complement cross-sectional research in humans. Mice underwent repeated structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), and [11C]Raclopride and [11C]SCH23390 positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a subset of aging mice. PET and sMRI data were analyzed by binding potential (BP ND ), voxel- and tensor-based morphometry (VBM and TBM, respectively). Longitudinal PET revealed a significant reduction in striatal BP ND for D2 receptors over time, whereas no significant change was found for D1 receptors. sMRI indicated a significant increase in modulated gray matter density (mGMD) over time in striatum, with limited clusters showing decreased mGMD. Mouse [11C]Raclopride data is compatible with previous reports in human cross-sectional studies, suggesting that a natural loss of dopaminergic D2 receptors in striatum can be assessed in mice, reflecting estimates from humans. No changes in D1 were found, which may be attributed to altered [11C]SCH23390 kinetics in anesthetized mice, suggesting that this tracer is not yet able to replicate human findings. sMRI revealed a significant increase in mGMD. Although contrary to expectations, this increase in modulated GM density may be attributed to an age-related increase in non-neuronal cells.
  • Jonasson Stiernman, Lars, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Dissociations between glucose metabolism and blood oxygenation in the human default mode network revealed by simultaneous PET-fMRI
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 118:27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The finding of reduced functional MRI (fMRI) activity in the default mode network (DMN) during externally focused cognitive control has been highly influential to our understanding of human brain function. However, these negative fMRI responses, measured as relative decreases in the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response between rest and task, have also prompted major questions of interpretation. Using hybrid functional positron emission tomography (PET)-MRI, this study shows that task-positive and -negative BOLD responses do not reflect antagonistic patterns of synaptic metabolism. Task-positive BOLD responses in attention and control networks were accompanied by concomitant increases in glucose metabolism during cognitive control, but metabolism in widespread DMN remained high during rest and task despite negative BOLD responses. Dissociations between glucose metabolism and the BOLD response specific to the DMN reveal functional heterogeneity in this network and demonstrate that negative BOLD responses during cognitive control should not be interpreted to reflect relative increases in metabolic activity during rest. Rather, neurovascular coupling underlying BOLD response patterns during rest and task in DMN appears fundamentally different from BOLD responses in other association networks during cognitive control.
  • Jonsson, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Does 18F-FDG PET/CT change the surgical management of potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases?
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Surgery. - : Sage Publications. - 1457-4969 .- 1799-7267. ; 111:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Resectability assessment of patients with colorectal liver metastases is based on computed tomography and liver magnetic resonance imaging. Addition of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography has been recommended, but the impact of the added information remains unclear. The primary aim of this study was to determine how preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography changed management in patients with potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases. The secondary aim was to investigate whether findings on positron emission tomography/computed tomography correlated to metastatic disease in cases with extended surgery and influenced oncological outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of the impact of adding positron emission tomography/computed tomography to conventional imaging in the surgical decision-making of colorectal liver metastases. All patients with colorectal liver metastases diagnosed by conventional imaging were included and assessed by a multidisciplinary team conference at Umeå University Hospital between June 2013 and December 2017. Eligibility criteria were all patients with potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases. Patients who underwent preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography in addition to conventional radiology were compared with those who underwent conventional imaging only. RESULTS: 151/220 patients underwent preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Findings on positron emission tomography/computed tomography changed the management in 10.6% of the patients. Eight patients were excluded from surgery after detection by positron emission tomography/computed tomography of extrahepatic disease. Eight patients underwent more extended surgery than initially planned due to positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Five of these positron emission tomography-positive resected sites were verified by pathology as metastatic disease. No difference in overall survival was seen following surgical resection in patients with and without a preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography resulted in a changed surgical management in 10.6% of cases in a selected cohort.
  • Kuttner, Samuel, et al. (författare)
  • Machine learning derived input-function in a dynamic 18F-FDG PET study of mice
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biomedical Engineering & Physics Express. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 2057-1976. ; 6:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tracer kinetic modelling, based on dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to quantify glucose metabolism in humans and animals. Knowledge of the arterial input-function (AIF) is required for such measurements. Our aim was to explore two non-invasive machine learning-based models, for AIF prediction in a small-animal dynamic FDG PET study. 7 tissue regions were delineated in images from 68 FDG PET/computed tomography mouse scans. Two machine learning-based models were trained for AIF prediction, based on Gaussian processes (GP) and a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network, respectively. Because blood data were unavailable, a reference AIF was formed by fitting an established AIF model to vena cava and left ventricle image data. The predicted and reference AIFs were compared by the area under curve (AUC) and root mean square error (RMSE). Net-influx rate constants, Ki , were calculated with a two-tissue compartment model, using both predicted and reference AIFs for three tissue regions in each mouse scan, and compared by means of error, ratio, correlation coefficient, P value and Bland-Altman analysis. The impact of different tissue regions on AIF prediction was evaluated by training a GP and an LSTM model on subsets of tissue regions, and calculating the RMSE between the reference and the predicted AIF curve. Both models generated AIFs with AUCs similar to reference. The LSTM models resulted in lower AIF RMSE, compared to GP. Ki from both models agreed well with reference values, with no significant differences. Myocardium was highlighted as important for AIF prediction, but AIFs with similar RMSE were obtained also without myocardium in the input data. Machine learning can be used for accurate and non-invasive prediction of an image-derived reference AIF in FDG studies of mice. We recommend the LSTM approach, as this model predicts AIFs with lower errors, compared to GP.
  • Löfbacka, Viktor, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis 99mTc-DPD SPECTcorrelates with strain echocardiography and biomarkers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 48, s. 1822-1832
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Hereditary transthyretin-amyloid amyloidosis (ATTRv) is an underdiagnosed condition commonly manifesting as congestive heart failure. Recently, scintigraphy utilizing DPD as a tracer was shown to identify ATTRv and wild-type ATTR cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to determine the value of quantified scintigraphy utilizing 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (DPD) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, and to correlate its uptake with well-established cardiac functional parameters.Methods: Forty-eight patients with genetically verified ATTRv type-A fibril composition, positive 99mTc-DPD SPECT/CT, were retrospectively analyzed. Manual mapping of volumes of interest (VOIs) on DPD SPECT/CT examinations was used to quantify heart uptake. DPD mean and maximum uptake together with a calculated DPD-based amyloid burden (DPDload) was correlated with echocardiographic strain values and cardiac biomarkers.Results: Statistically significant correlations were seen in VOIs between DPD uptakes and the corresponding echocardiographic strain values. Furthermore, DPDload had a strong correlation with echocardiographic strain parameters and also correlated with biomarkers troponin T and logarithmic NT-ProBNP.Conclusions: In patients with ATTRv cardiomyopathy, DPD SPECT/CT measures the amyloid distribution and provides information on cardiac amyloid load. DPD amyloid load correlates with functional cardiac parameters.
  • Möckelind, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Quantification of cardiac amyloid with [18F]Flutemetamol in patients with V30M hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Amyloid. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1350-6129 .- 1744-2818. ; 27:3, s. 191-199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Hereditary transthyretin amyloid (ATTRv) is a systemic amyloidosis with mainly neurological and cardiac symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of [18F]Flutemetamol PET/CT-scan of the heart in long-term survivors with ATTRV30M amyloidosis.Methods: Twenty-one patients with ATTRV30M amyloidosis and predominantly neurological symptoms, mainly negative on cardiac 99mtechnetium-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (DPD)-scintigraphy, were examined with a dynamic [18F]Flutemetamol PET/CT-scan. Five patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease and one healthy individual served as controls. Volumes of interests were drawn over the intraventricular septum, lateral wall of the left ventricle and free wall of the right ventricle. Clinical records were reviewed for data from previous completed DPD-scintigraphy of the heart and echocardiography.Results: Patients with ATTRv amyloidosis had a higher cardiac uptake than the control-group in all analysed regions of the heart and could be identified with high accuracy (sensitivity 88%, specificity 100%) in static image acquisition at 30 or 60 min. We found no correlation between cardiac [18F]Flutemetamol uptake and clinical variables.Conclusion: In this small study of selected patients, cardiac [18F]Flutemetamol PET/CT could differentiate between healthy individuals and patients with ATTRV30M. [18F]Flutemetamol PET/CT imaging of amyloidosis in patients with a negative DPD-scintigraphy has a potential as a diagnostic method.
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