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Sökning: WFRF:(Backman Helena) > (2010-2014) > (2014)

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  • Alexanderson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • An Arctic perspective on dating Mid-Late Pleistocene environmental history
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - : Elsevier BV. - 0277-3791 .- 1873-457X. ; 92, s. 9-31
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better understand Pleistocene climatic changes in the Arctic, integrated palaeoenvironmental andpalaeoclimatic signals from a variety of marine and terrestrial geological records as well as geochronologicage control are required, not least for correlation to extra-Arctic records. In this paper we discuss,from an Arctic perspective, methods and correlation tools that are commonly used to date ArcticPleistocene marine and terrestrial events. We review the state of the art of Arctic geochronology, withfocus on factors that affect the possibility and quality of dating, and support this overview by examples ofapplication of modern dating methods to Arctic terrestrial and marine sequences.Event stratigraphy and numerical ages are important tools used in the Arctic to correlate fragmentedterrestrial records and to establish regional stratigraphic schemes. Age control is commonly provided byradiocarbon, luminescence or cosmogenic exposure ages. Arctic Ocean deep-sea sediment successionscan be correlated over large distances based on geochemical and physical property proxies for sedimentcomposition, patterns in palaeomagnetic records and, increasingly, biostratigraphic data. Many of theseproxies reveal cyclical patterns that provide a basis for astronomical tuning.Recent advances in dating technology, calibration and age modelling allow for measuring smallerquantities of material and to more precisely date previously undatable material (i.e. foraminifera for 14C,and single-grain luminescence). However, for much of the Pleistocene there are still limits to the resolutionof most dating methods. Consequently improving the accuracy and precision (analytical andgeological uncertainty) of dating methods through technological advances and better understanding ofprocesses are important tasks for the future. Another challenge is to better integrate marine andterrestrial records, which could be aided by targeting continental shelf and lake records, exploringproxies that occur in both settings, and by creating joint research networks that promote collaborationbetween marine and terrestrial geologists and modellers.
  • Backman, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence trends in respiratory symptoms and asthma in relation to smoking : two cross-sectional studies ten years apart among adults in northern Sweden
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The World Allergy Organization journal. - : BioMed Central. - 1939-4551. ; 7:1, s. 1-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Smoking is considered to be the single most important preventable risk factor for respiratory symptoms. Estimating prevalence of respiratory symptoms is important since they most often precede a diagnosis of an obstructive airway disease, which places a major burden on the society. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence trends of respiratory symptoms and asthma among Swedish adults, in relation to smoking habits. A further aim was to estimate the proportion of respiratory symptom and asthma prevalence attributable to smoking.METHODS: Data from two large-scale cross-sectional surveys among adults performed in northern Sweden in 1996 and 2006 were analysed. Identical methods and the same questionnaire were used in both surveys. The association between smoking, respiratory symptoms and asthma was analysed with multiple logistic regression analyses. Changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma from 1996 to 2006 were expressed as odds ratios. Additionally, the population attributable risks of smoking were estimated.RESULTS: The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006. Longstanding cough decreased from 12.4 to 10.1%, sputum production from 19.0 to 15.0%, chronic productive cough from 7.3 to 6.2%, and recurrent wheeze from 13.4 to 12.0%. Any wheeze and asthmatic wheeze remained unchanged. This parallels to a decrease in smoking from 27.4 to 19.1%. In contrast, physician-diagnosed asthma increased from 9.4 to 11.6%. The patterns were similar after correction for confounders. All respiratory symptoms were highly associated with smoking, and the proportion of respiratory symptoms in the population attributed to smoking (PAR) ranged from 9.8 to 25.5%. In 2006, PAR of smoking was highest for recurrent wheeze (20.6%).CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that respiratory symptoms, in particular symptoms common in bronchitis, decreased among adults in northern Sweden, parallel to a decrease in smoking from 1996 to 2006. In contrast, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma increased during the same time-period. Up to one fourth of the respiratory symptom prevalence in the population was attributable to smoking.
  • Hagstad, Stig, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Passive Smoking Exposure Is Associated With Increased Risk of COPD in Never Smokers
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Chest. - : Elsevier BV. - 0012-3692 .- 1931-3543. ; 145:6, s. 1298-1304
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Passive smoking, or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a risk factor for lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and childhood asthma, but a relationship with COPD has not been fully established. Our aim was to study ETS as a risk factor for COPD in never smokers. Methods: Data from three cross-sectional studies within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) database were pooled. Of the 2,182 lifelong never smokers, 2,118 completed structured interviews and spirometry of acceptable quality. COPD was defined according to the GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria using postbronchodilator spirometry. The association of COPD with ETS in single and multiple settings was calculated by multivariate logistic regression adjusting for known risk factors for COPD. Results: COPD prevalence was associated with increased ETS exposure: 4.2% (no ETS), 8.0% (ETS ever at home), 8.3% (ETS at previous work), and 14.7% (ETS ever at home and at both previous and current work), test for trend P 5.003. Exclusion of subjects aged >= 65 years and subjects reporting asthma yielded similar results. ETS in multiple settings, such as ever at home and at both previous and current work, was strongly associated to COPD (OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 1.29-11.2). Conclusions: In this population-based sample of never smokers, ETS was independently associated with COPD. The association was stronger for ETS in multiple settings. ETS in multiple settings was, after age, the strongest risk factor for COPD and comparable to personal smoking of up to 14 cigarettes/d in comparable materials. The findings strongly advocate measures against smoking in public places.
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