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Sökning: WFRF:(Bernstein Inge)

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1.
  • Thompson, B.A., et al. (författare)
  • Application of a 5-tiered scheme for standardized classification of 2,360 unique mismatch repair gene variants in the InSiGHT locus-specific database
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:2, s. 107-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinical classification of hereditary sequence variants identified in disease-related genes directly affects clinical management of patients and their relatives. The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) undertook a collaborative effort to develop, test and apply a standardized classification scheme to constitutional variants in the Lynch syndrome-associated genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Unpublished data submission was encouraged to assist in variant classification and was recognized through microattribution. The scheme was refined by multidisciplinary expert committee review of the clinical and functional data available for variants, applied to 2,360 sequence alterations, and disseminated online. Assessment using validated criteria altered classifications for 66% of 12,006 database entries. Clinical recommendations based on transparent evaluation are now possible for 1,370 variants that were not obviously protein truncating from nomenclature. This large-scale endeavor will facilitate the consistent management of families suspected to have Lynch syndrome and demonstrates the value of multidisciplinary collaboration in the curation and classification of variants in public locus-specific databases. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.
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2.
  • Coignard, Juliette, et al. (författare)
  • A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P<10(-8), at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers varies depending on other genetic factors. Here, the authors perform a case-only genome-wide association study and highlight novel loci associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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3.
  • Ketabi, Zohreh, et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian cancer linked to lynch syndrome typically presents as early-onset, non-serous epithelial tumors
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - : Academic Press. - 1095-6859. ; 121:3, s. 462-465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Heredity is a major cause of ovarian cancer and during recent years the contribution from germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations linked to Lynch syndrome has gradually been recognized. Methods. We characterized clinical features, tumor morphology and mismatch repair defects in all ovarian cancers identified in Swedish and Danish Lynch syndrome families. Results. In total, 63 epithelial ovarian cancers developed at mean 48 (range 30-79) years of age with 47% being early stage (FIGO stage I). Histologically, endometrioid (35%) and clear cell (17%) tumors were overrepresented. The underlying MMR gene mutations in these families affected MSH2 in 49%, MSH6 in 33% and MLH1 in 17%. Immunohistochemical loss of the corresponding MMR protein was demonstrated in 33/36 (92%) tumors analyzed. Conclusion. The combined data from our cohorts demonstrate that ovarian cancer associated with Lynch syndrome typically presents at young age as early-stage, non-serous tumors, which implicates that a family history of colorectal and endometrial cancer should be specifically considered in such cases. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Klarskov, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Interobserver variability in the evaluation of mismatch repair protein immunostaining
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Pathology. - : Elsevier. - 1532-8392. ; 41:10, s. 1387-1396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins has during recent years been established as a routine analysis in many pathology laboratories with the aim to identify tumors linked to the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Despite widespread application, data on reliability are lacking. We therefore evaluated interobserver variability among 6 pathologists, 3 experienced gastrointestinal pathologists and 3 residents. In total, 225 immunohistochemically stained colorectal cancers were evaluated as having normal, weak, loss of, or nonevaluable mismatch repair protein staining. Full consensus was achieved in 51% of the stainings for MLH1, 61% for PMS2, 83% for MSH2, and 45% for MSH6. Weak stainings were the main cause of reduced consensus, whereas contradictory evaluations with normal as well as loss of staining were reported in 2% to 6% of the tumors. Interobserver variability was considerable, though experienced pathologists and residents reached the same level of consensus. Because results from immunohistochemical mismatch repair protein stainings are used for decisions on mutation analysis and as an aid in the interpretation of gene variants of unknown significance in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the interobserver variability identified highlights the need for quality assessment programs, including guidelines for classification of different expression patterns. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Dominguez, Mev, et al. (författare)
  • Distinct gene expression signatures in lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type x.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.
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7.
  • Haraldsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Differential expression of CK20, β-catenin, and MUC2/5AC/6 in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Clinical Pathology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1472-6890. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer comprises Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Differences in genetics, demographics and histopathology have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is to characterize their immunoprofile of markers other than MMR proteins. Methods: We compared the expression patterns of cytokeratins (CK7 and CK20), mucins (MUC2/5 AC/6), CDX2 and β-catenin in Lynch syndrome and FCCTX. Results: Differences were identified for CK20 and nuclear β-catenin, which were significantly more often expressed in FCCTX than in Lynch syndrome (p < 0.001), whereas MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 were overexpressed in Lynch syndrome tumors compared with FCCTX tumors (p = 0.001, < 0.01, and < 0.001, respectively). We observed no differences in the expression patterns of CK7 and CDX2. Conclusions: In summary, we identified significant differences in the immunoprofiles of colorectal cancers linked to FCCTX and Lynch syndrome with a more sporadic-like profile in the former group and a more distinct profile with frequent MUC6 positivity in the latter group.
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8.
  • Isinger Ekstrand, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Familial Cancer. - : Kluwer. - 1389-9600. ; 10, s. 239-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability, but show few gross genomic alterations. We characterized expression of the Wnt signaling pathway markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, TCF-4, and PTEN using immunohistochemical staining in colorectal cancers from individuals with HNPCC. Reduced membranous staining for β-catenin was found in 64% and for E-cadherin in 80% with strong correlation between these markers (P = 0.001). Nuclear β-catenin staining was detected in 19% of the tumors. Overexpression of TCF-4, which is activated by β-catenin, was found in 89% and downregulation of PTEN, which suppresses nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, was present in 54% of the tumors. In summary, altered expression of target molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway was demonstrated in the vast majority of the HNPCC-associated tumors, which support deranged Wnt-signaling as a central tumorigenic mechanism also in MMR defective colorectal cancer.
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9.
  • Klarskov, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Challenges in the Identification of MSH6-Associated Colorectal Cancer: Rectal Location, Less Typical Histology, and a Subset With Retained Mismatch Repair Function.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Surgical Pathology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1532-0979. ; 35:9, s. 1391-1399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identification of Lynch syndrome tumors is challenging. This relates particularly to MSH6-associated cases, which show reduced penetrance of colorectal cancer and a higher age at diagnosis. We recorded the clinical and morphologic features of 52 MSH6-associated colorectal cancers in comparison with MLH1/MSH2-mutant tumors and sporadic mismatch repair-deficient cancers. In the MSH6 subset, we confirmed a higher age (median, 56 y) at diagnosis and found a significantly larger proportion (25%) of rectal cancers. Presence of dirty necrosis was the sole histologic component that significantly differed between MSH6 and MLH1/MSH2 tumors. Compared with the sporadic mismatch repair-defective cohort, MSH6 cases had a lower prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and Crohn-like reactions. Mismatch repair defects were identified in 92% of MSH6 tumors, with high concordance between microsatellite instability and loss of immunohistochemical MSH6 expression. The remaining 8% showed a mismatch repair-stable phenotype, which suggests that analysis of additional tumors might be considered in families suspected of Lynch syndrome.
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10.
  • Klarskov, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics: morphological features of familial colorectal cancer type X versus Lynch syndrome
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Pathology. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1472-4146. ; 65:4, s. 352-356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain. Objective and methods To perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX and Lynch syndrome. Results The morphological features associated with Lynch syndrome, that is, right-sided tumour location, poor differentiation, expansive growth pattern, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, peritumorous lymphocytes, Crohn-like reactions, and lack of dirty necrosis, were significantly less often observed in FCCTX tumours. Discussion The less typical morphology in FCCTX implies that family history of cancer needs to be taken into account since these tumours cannot readily be recognised based on histopathological features.
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