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Sökning: WFRF:(Bertilsson Maria) > (2020-2022)

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  • Bertilsson, Carolina, 1990, et al. (författare)
  • Dental markers of biocultural sex differences in an early modern population from Gothenburg, Sweden: caries and other oral pathologies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMC oral health. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1472-6831. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the aim to study dental pathological lesions in an early Swedish modern population, with special reference to sex variances of dental caries, the prevalence and distribution of dental caries and tooth wear were determined in complete and partial human dentitions from an early modern-time city graveyard (1500-1620) excavated in Gamlestaden, Gothenburg, Sweden.Partial and complete dentitions were examined through visual inspection and using a dental probe. Pathologies were studied, evaluated and presented by teeth and alveoli.The study population consisted of 308 individuals. A total of 4,951 teeth in adults and 1,660 teeth in children were examined. Caries prevalence in the studied population was 55% and the highest prevalence of caries was found among the adults, where 68% of the individuals had at least one carious lesion. Caries experience (DMT > 0) in the entire population was 60%, and among adults caries experience was 76%. Women had significantly higher caries experience than men (p < 0.05). Caries was most prevalent in the molar teeth and least prevalent in the incisors and canines. Significant age-related increases in tooth wear were found, and a positive correlation between wear in molars and incisors (p < 0.001). Other clinical findings were signs of apical lesions, crowding of teeth, aplasia, non-erupted canines and calculus.Findings show that dental pathological lesions affected a majority of the studied population, and indicate that women were more predisposed to dental disease than their male counterparts. Results are discussed from a multi-factorial explanation model including dietary, physiological and cultural etiological factors.
  • Flink, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Person-centred care transitions for people with stroke : study protocol for a feasibility evaluation of codesigned care transition support.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ. - 2044-6055. ; 11:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Care transitions following stroke should be bridged with collaboration between hospital staff and home rehabilitation teams since well-coordinated transitions can reduce death and disability following a stroke. However, health services are delivered within organisational structures, rather than being based on patients' needs. The aim of this study protocol is to assess the feasibility, operationalised here as fidelity and acceptability, of a codesigned care transition support for people with stroke.METHODS: This study protocol describes the evaluation of a feasibility study using a non-randomised controlled design. The codesigned care transition support includes patient information using videos, leaflets and teach back; what-matters-to me dialogue; a coordinated rehabilitation plan; bridged e-meeting; and a message system for cross-organisational collaboration. Patients with stroke, first time or recurrent, who are to be discharged home from hospital and referred to a rehabilitation team in primary healthcare for continued rehabilitation in the home will be included. One week after stroke, data will be collected on the primary outcome, namely satisfaction with the care transition support, and on the secondary outcome, namely health literacy and medication adherence. Data on use of healthcare will be obtained from a register of healthcare contacts. The outcomes of patients and significant others will be compared with matched controls from other geriatric stroke and acute stroke units, and with matched historic controls from a previous dataset at the intervention and control units. Data on acceptability and fidelity will be assessed through interviews and observations at the intervention units.ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approvals have been obtained from the Swedish Ethical Review Authority. The results will be published open-access in peer-reviewed journals. Dissemination also includes presentation at national and international conferences.DISCUSSION: The care transition support addresses a poorly functioning part of care trajectories in current healthcare. The development of this codesigned care transition support has involved people with stroke, significant other, and healthcare professionals. Such involvement has the potential to better identify and reconceptualise problems, and incorporate user experiences.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov id: NCT02925871. Date of registration 6 October 2016.PROTOCOL VERSION: 1.
  • Kempen, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Hospital-Based Comprehensive Medication Reviews Including Postdischarge Follow-up on Older Patients' Use of Health Care : A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JAMA Network Open. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2574-3805. ; 4:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Suboptimal use of medications is a leading cause of health care–related harm. Medication reviews improve medication use, but evidence of the possible benefit of inpatient medication review for hard clinical outcomes after discharge is scarce.Objective: To study the effects of hospital-based comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs), including postdischarge follow-up of older patients’ use of health care resources, compared with only hospital-based reviews and usual care.Design, Setting, and Participants: The Medication Reviews Bridging Healthcare trial is a cluster randomized crossover trial that was conducted in 8 wards with multiprofessional teams at 4 hospitals in Sweden from February 6, 2017, to October 19, 2018, with 12 months of follow-up completed December 6, 2019. The study was prespecified in the trial protocol. Outcome assessors were blinded to treatment allocation. In total, 2644 patients aged 65 years or older who had been admitted to 1 of the study wards for at least 1 day were included. Data from the modified intention-to-treat population were analyzed from December 10, 2019, to September 9, 2020.Interventions: Each ward participated in the trial for 6 consecutive 8-week periods. The wards were randomized to provide 1 of 3 treatments during each period: CMR, CMR plus postdischarge follow-up, and usual care without a clinical pharmacist.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was the incidence of unplanned hospital visits (admissions plus emergency department visits) within 12 months. Secondary outcomes included medication-related admissions, visits with primary care clinicians, time to first unplanned hospital visit, mortality, and costs of hospital-based care.Results: Of the 2644 participants, 7 withdrew after inclusion, leaving 2637 for analysis (1357 female [51.5%]; median age, 81 [interquartile range, 74-87] years; median number of medications, 9 [interquartile range, 5-13]). In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, 922 patients received CMR, 823 received CMR plus postdischarge follow-up, and 892 received usual care. The crude incidence rate of unplanned hospital visits was 1.77 per patient-year in the total study population. The primary outcome did not differ between the intervention groups and usual care (adjusted rate ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.89-1.22] for CMR and 1.15 [95% CI, 0.98-1.34] for CMR plus postdischarge follow-up). However, CMR plus postdischarge follow-up was associated with an increased incidence of emergency department visits within 12 months (adjusted rate ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.05-1.59) compared with usual care. There were no differences between treatment groups regarding other secondary outcomes.Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of older hospitalized patients, CMR plus postdischarge follow-up did not decrease the incidence of unplanned hospital visits. The findings do not support the performance of hospital-based CMRs as conducted in this trial. Alternative forms of medication reviews that aim to improve older patients’ health outcomes should be considered and subjected to randomized clinical trials.
  • Kontny, Frederic, et al. (författare)
  • Pentraxin-3 vs C-reactive protein and other prognostic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome : A substudy of the Platelet Inhibition and Patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 9:4, s. 313-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: We investigated the dynamics, associations with patient characteristics, other biomarkers, and clinical outcomes of pentraxin 3 in acute coronary syndrome.METHODS AND RESULTS: In multivariate analyses, pentraxin 3 measured in 5154 patients randomised in the Platelet Inhibition and Patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872) was compared with leukocytes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, cystatin C, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T and growth differentiation factor 15 concerning prediction of clinical outcome. Pentraxin 3 peaked earlier than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and was more strongly correlated with N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T than with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The frequency of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke by quartiles of pentraxin 3 at admission was 6.1%, 7.3%, 9.7% and 10.7%, respectively ( p<0.0001). The hazard ratio per 50% increase of pentraxin 3 was 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.19), p<0.0001. This association remained significant after stepwise adjustments for leukocytes/high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (1.09 (1.02-1.15)), p=0.009, interleukin-6 (1.07 (1.01-1.14)), p=0.026, and cystatin C (1.07 (1.00-1.13)), p=0.044, but not after adjustment for N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T and growth differentiation factor 15. Admission pentraxin 3 was also associated with several of the individual endpoint components (cardiovascular death/spontaneous myocardial infarction; p=0.008, cardiovascular death; p=0.026, and spontaneous myocardial infarction; p=0.017), but not with stroke. Pentraxin 3 measured in the chronic phase (i.e. at one month) was still predictive of the composite endpoint in univariate analysis (1.12 (1.04-1.20) per 50% increase) p=0.0024, but not after adjustment for the other biomarkers.CONCLUSION: Admission level of pentraxin 3 is a modestly stronger predictor than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, but not than N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide or high-sensitivity troponin T, concerning cardiovascular outcome in acute coronary syndrome. Pentraxin 3 is more strongly correlated with N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T than with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.
  • Oldgren, Jonas, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Early versus delayed non-vitamin k antagonist oral anticoagulant therapy after acute ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation (timing) : a registry-based randomized controlled noninferiority study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : American heart association. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 146:14, s. 1056-1066
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There are no evidence-based recommendations on the optimal time point to initiate non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) after acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of early versus delayed initiation of NOAC in these patients.METHODS: TIMING (Timing of Oral Anticoagulant Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke With Atrial Fibrillation) was a registry-based, randomized, noninferiority, open-label, blinded end-point study at 34 stroke units using the Swedish Stroke Register for enrollment and follow-up. Within 72 hours from stroke onset, patients were randomized to early (≤4 days) or delayed (5-10 days) NOAC initiation, with choice of NOAC at the investigators' discretion. The primary outcome was the composite of recurrent ischemic stroke, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, or all-cause mortality at 90 days. The prespecified noninferiority margin was 3%. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome.RESULTS: Between April 2, 2017, and December 30, 2020, 888 patients were randomized to either early (n=450) or delayed (n=438) initiation of NOAC. No patient was lost to 90-day follow-up. Mean age was 78.3 years (SD, 9.9 years); 46.2% were women; 49.1% had previously known atrial fibrillation; and 17.5% prior stroke. The primary outcome occurred in 31 patients (6.89%) assigned to early initiation and in 38 patients (8.68%) assigned to delayed NOAC initiation (absolute risk difference, -1.79% [95% CI, -5.31% to 1.74%]; Pnoninferiority=0.004). Ischemic stroke rates were 3.11% and 4.57% (risk difference, -1.46% [95% CI, -3.98% to 1.07%]) and all-cause mortality rates were 4.67% and 5.71% (risk difference, -1.04% [95% CI, -3.96% to 1.88%]) in the early and delayed groups, respectively. No patient in either group experienced symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation was noninferior to delayed start of NOAC after acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Numerically lower rates of ischemic stroke and death and the absence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages implied that the early start of NOAC was safe and should be considered for acute secondary stroke prevention in patients eligible for NOAC treatment. 
  • Ueland, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • ALCAM predicts future cardiovascular death in acute coronary syndromes : Insights from the PLATO trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - : Elsevier. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 293, s. 35-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is upregulated during inflammation and involved in transmigration of leukocytes and T-cell activation. We hypothesized that ALCAM might be associated with recurrent events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).METHODS: ALCAM was measured in serum obtained on admission, at discharge, 1 month and 6 months in a subgroup of 5165 patients admitted with ACS and included in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872). The association between ALCAM and the composite endpoint and its components, including cardiovascular (CV) death, non-procedural spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke during 1-year follow-up, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models with incremental addition of clinical risk factors and biomarkers (including high-sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and growth differentiation factor-15).RESULTS: The median (Q1-Q3) concentration of ALCAM at admission was 97 (80-116) ng/mL. A 50% higher level of ALCAM on admission was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval [1.00-1.34] p = 0.043) for the composite endpoint in fully adjusted analysis, mainly driven by the association with CV death (HR 1.45 [1.16-1.82] p = 0.0012).CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS, admission level of ALCAM was independently associated with adverse outcome including CV death even after adjustment for established inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers.
  • Urrutia Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Functionally reversible impacts of disturbances on lake food webs linked to spatial and seasonal dependencies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 102:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing human impact on the environment is causing drastic changes in disturbance regimes and how they prevail over time. Of increasing relevance is to further our understanding on biological responses to pulse disturbances (short duration) and how they interact with other ongoing press disturbances (constantly present). Because the temporal and spatial contexts of single experiments often limit our ability to generalize results across space and time, we conducted a modularized mesocosm experiment replicated in space (five lakes along a latitudinal gradient in Scandinavia) and time (two seasons, spring and summer) to generate general predictions on how the functioning and composition of multitrophic plankton communities (zoo-, phyto- and bacterioplankton) respond to pulse disturbances acting either in isolation or combined with press disturbances. As pulse disturbance, we used short-term changes in fish presence, and as press disturbance, we addressed the ongoing reduction in light availability caused by increased cloudiness and lake browning in many boreal and subarctic lakes. First, our results show that the top-down pulse disturbance had the strongest effects on both functioning and composition of the three trophic levels across sites and seasons, with signs for interactive impacts with the bottom-up press disturbance on phytoplankton communities. Second, community composition responses to disturbances were highly divergent between lakes and seasons: temporal accumulated community turnover of the same trophic level either increased (destabilization) or decreased (stabilization) in response to the disturbances compared to control conditions. Third, we found functional recovery from the pulse disturbances to be frequent at the end of most experiments. In a broader context, these results demonstrate that top-down, pulse disturbances, either alone or with additional constant stress upon primary producers caused by bottom-up disturbances, can induce profound but often functionally reversible changes across multiple trophic levels, which are strongly linked to spatial and temporal context dependencies. Furthermore, the identified dichotomy of disturbance effects on the turnover in community composition demonstrates the potential of disturbances to either stabilize or destabilize biodiversity patterns over time across a wide range of environmental conditions.
  • Urrutia Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Integrating multiple dimensions of ecological stability into a vulnerability framework
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0022-0477 .- 1365-2745. ; 110:2, s. 374-386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ecological stability encompasses multiple dimensions of functional and compositional responses to environmental change. Though no single stability dimension used in isolation can fully reflect the overall response to environmental change, a common vulnerability assessment that integrates simultaneously across multiple stability components is highly desirable for ecological risk assessment. We develop both functional and compositional counterparts of a novel, integrative metric of overall ecological vulnerability (OEV). We test the framework with data from a modularized experiment replicated in five lakes over two seasons, examining functional and compositional responses to both pulse and press disturbances across three trophic groups. OEV is measured as the area under the curve integrated over the entire observation period, with the curve delimiting the difference between the disturbance treatment and undisturbed parallel controls, expressed either as the log response ratio of biomass (functional OEV) or community dissimilarity index (compositional OEV). Both, functional and compositional OEV correlated negatively with functional and compositional 'resistance', 'temporal stability' and 'final/extent of recovery' following both pulse and press disturbances, though less so with 'resilience' following a pulse disturbance. We also found a positive correlation between functional and compositional OEV, which reveals the potential to also evaluate the intricate linkage between biodiversity and functional change. Our findings demonstrate that OEV comprises a robust framework to: (a) capture simultaneously multiple functional and compositional stability components, and (b) quantify the functional consequences of biodiversity change. Our results provide the basis for an overarching framework for quantifying the overall vulnerability of ecosystems to environmental change, opening new possibilities for ecological risk assessment and management. Synthesis. Ecological stability comprises multiple dimensions that together encapsulate how ecosystems respond to environmental change. Considering these multiple aspects of stability simultaneously often poses a problem in environmental assessments, which frequently require overarching indicators of risk or vulnerability. While an analysis of multiple dimensions allows for deeper exploration of mechanisms, here we develop and test a new univariate indicator that integrates stability aspects under a broad range of disturbance regimes. Using a modularized experiment in Swedish lakes, we show that this integrative measure captures multiple stability dimensions reflecting compositional and functional vulnerability and their relationships between them.
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