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Sökning: WFRF:(Burell Gunilla) > (2005-2009)

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  • Claesson, Maria, 1971- (författare)
  • Women's hearts : ischaemic heart disease and stress management in women
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), caused by ischaemic heart disease (IHD), is a leading cause of death in both men and women in the western society. Hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are examples of well-known risk factors of IHD, but also there are psychosocial factors, such as stress, vital exhaustion (unusual fatigue, irritability, and demoralization) and depression that have been associated with an increased risk in both genders. After an AMI, however, women are more likely than men to be psychosocially impaired resulting in suffering and a presumed increase in the risk of recurrent cardiac events. Psychosocial factors may be targeted in secondary prevention, complementary to drug treatment and conventional lifestyle advice. There is some evidence of beneficial effects on both psychosocial well-being and cardiac outcomes by psychosocial interventions in men. Far fewer women have been studied and the results have been inconsistent. It is not clear how psychosocial factors convey the increased risk of cardiac events, but many possible psychopathological mechanisms, including biochemical and physiological links, have been suggested. In the Women’s Hearts study we have, in a randomised controlled trial, evaluated a one-year cognitive-behavioural stress management programme designed specifically for women with IHD. We included 198 women with IHD, with a mean age of 61 years and from the county of Västerbotten in Northern Sweden, who were randomised to either conventional treatment and follow-up, or to stress management in addition to conventional care. Extensive questionnaires, blood samplings, and biomedical and physiologic data were obtained before randomisation, as well as at follow-ups approximately one and two years after randomisation. Two groups of healthy controls were included for comparisons with women with IHD. Compared to women without IHD, women with IHD reported more stress behaviour and vital exhaustion. Women with IHD also had a lower heart rate variability (HRV) than the healthy controls, possibly reflecting a dysfunctional autonomic nervous regulation of the heart. Reduced HRV has been shown to increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. At the first follow-up, performed at the end of the one-year stress management programme, women who had participated in the programme had reduced the stress behaviour and vital exhaustion, compared to the women in the conventional care group. We could not find any evidence of a direct cause-effect relationship between stress management and biological cardiovascular risk indicators, or HRV; the intervention and control groups did not differ in insulin resistance, inflammatory, haemostatic and fibrinolytic factors, or HRV. At second follow-up one year later, several additional psychosocial domains were studied. The stress management programme had accelerated psychosocial recovery at the first follow-up over and above that observed in the control group. At the second follow-up, there was further marked improvement in the control group, so the differences in psychosocial variables between the intervention and control groups were no longer significant. In conclusion, a cognitive-behavioural stress management programme could accelerate psychosocial improvement in women with IHD, and thus reduce the amount of psychological and psychosocial suffering. We could not find any evidence that the stress management programme was associated with a concomitant improvement in biological cardiovascular risk indicators, or HRV. Our results suggest that the women with the greatest psychosocial burden should be identified and targeted in new clinical trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in women with IHD. Future studies within the Women’s Hearts project will evaluate the psychosocial effects at a five-year follow-up, as well as investigations of other possible pathways by which psychosocial interventions might mediate beneficial effects on cardiac events.
  • Graham, Ian, et al. (författare)
  • European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts).
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1741-8267. ; 14 Suppl 2, s. S1-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Other experts who contributed to parts of the guidelines: Edmond Walma, Tony Fitzgerald, Marie Therese Cooney, Alexandra Dudina European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG): Alec Vahanian (Chairperson), John Camm, Raffaele De Caterina, Veronica Dean, Kenneth Dickstein, Christian Funck-Brentano, Gerasimos Filippatos, Irene Hellemans, Steen Dalby Kristensen, Keith McGregor, Udo Sechtem, Sigmund Silber, Michal Tendera, Petr Widimsky, Jose Luis Zamorano Document reviewers: Irene Hellemans (CPG Review Co-ordinator), Attila Altiner, Enzo Bonora, Paul N. Durrington, Robert Fagard, Simona Giampaoli, Harry Hemingway, Jan Hakansson, Sverre Erik Kjeldsen, Mogens Lytken Larsen, Giuseppe Mancia, Athanasios J. Manolis, Kristina Orth-Gomer, Terje Pedersen, Mike Rayner, Lars Ryden, Mario Sammut, Neil Schneiderman, Anton F. Stalenhoef, Lale Tokgözoglu, Olov Wiklund, Antonis Zampelas
  • Gulliksson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Psychosocial factors during the first year after a coronary heart disease event in cases and referents : Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Health Care Project (SUPRIM)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2261 .- 1471-2261. ; 7, s. 36-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: A large number of studies have reported on the psychosocial risk factor pattern prior to coronary heart disease events, but few have investigated the situation during the first year after an event, and none has been controlled. We therefore performed a case-referent study in which the prevalence of a number of psychosocial factors was evaluated. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-six coronary heart disease male and female cases no more than 75 years of age, discharged from hospital within the past 12 months, and 1038 referents from the general population, matched to the cases by age, sex and place of living, received a postal questionnaire in which information on lifestyle, psychosocial and quality of life measures were sought. RESULTS: The cases were, as expected, on sick leave to a larger extent than the referents, reported poorer fitness, poorer perceived health, fewer leisure time activities, but unexpectedly reported better social support, and more optimistic views of the future than the referents. There were no significant case-referent differences in everyday life stress, stressful life events, vital exhaustion, depressive mood, coping or life orientation test. However, women reported less favourable situations than men regarding stressful life events affecting others, vital exhaustion, depressive mood, coping, self-esteem, sleep, and symptom reporting, and female cases reported the most unfavourable situation of all groups. CONCLUSION: In this first controlled study of the situation during the first year after a CHD event disease and gender status both appeared to be determinants of psychological well-being, with gender status apparently the strongest. This may have implications for cardiac rehabilitation programmes.
  • Gulliksson, Mats, 1954- (författare)
  • Studies of Secondary Prevention after Coronary Heart Disease with Special Reference to Determinants of Recurrent Event Rate
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objectives. The first aim was to examine the effects of secondary prevention with a focus on determinants in the risk of recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). The second aim was to analyse the effects of a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention on the risk of recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to investigate the psychosocial situation of CHD patients. Material and methods. Papers I and II were based on the Swedish Acute Myocardial Infarction Statistics Register, 1969 to 2001: 775,901 events in 589,341 subjects. Papers III and IV were based on The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Care project (SUPRIM), a randomized controlled clinical trial in 362 CHD patients. Results. The risk of a recurrent acute myocardial infarction (AMI) event was highly dependent on time from the previous event, with the greatest risk immediately after an AMI event. In addition, sex, age, and AMI number influenced the general risk level. Furthermore, there has been a major decline in recurrence risk over 30 years, and there were considerable geographical differences in risk, best explained by residential area population density, with a high recurrent AMI risk in areas with the lowest and the highest population densities, and the lowest risk in areas with moderate population density. Disease status and sex were determinants of psychological well-being the first year after a CHD event. Sex seemed to be the stronger determinant. The CBT intervention focused on stress management during one year in patients with CHD.  There was significantly improved outcome in the intervention group on recurrent CVD and recurrent AMI during a 9 year follow up. A dose-response relationship was demonstrated between attendance rate at intervention group meetings and outcome, the higher the attendance rate the better the outcome. Conclusions. The risk of a recurrent AMI event was dependent on time from the previous event, with major improvement seen in recent decades. Regional differences were best explained by population density. Female CHD patients were at high risk concerning well-being after a coronary event, which deserves special attention. The CBT intervention for CHD patients improved outcomes concerning the risk of recurrent CVD and AMI events.
  • Jerdén, Lars (författare)
  • Health-promoting health services : personal health documents and empowerment
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In 2003, the Swedish Parliament adopted a national public health policy that included the domain - “A more health-promoting health service”. Strategies and tools are needed in the work to reorient health services. Personal health documents are documents concerning a person’s health, and are owned by the individual. Several studies that have evaluated such documents indicate that they could be of interest in health-promotion work. However, there is insufficient knowledge concerning personal health documents that target adolescents, and little is known about the feasibility of such documents in a Swedish cultural context. The concept of empowerment is gaining increased interest for health services, but the associations between empowerment, self-rated health and health behaviour are sparsely studied. The overall aim of the thesis is to explore a strategy - empowerment - and a tool - personal health documents - that might facilitate the work of the public health goal of a health-promoting health service. Specific aims are to examine the feasibility of using personal health documents in health promotion; to examine professionals’ experiences of working with health promotion and personal health documents; to examine the association between personal health documents and self-reported health behaviour change; and to examine the perception of empowerment in relation to self-rated health and health behaviour among adolescents. Two personal health documents that targeted adults and adolescents were developed and evaluated. Distribution to adults in different settings was compared in a cross-sectional study (n = 1 306). Adolescents received the document in school, and surveys were performed at baseline and after one year (n = 339). Practical use and attitudes by document owners were studied by questionnaires. Teachers (n = 69) answered a questionnaire, and community health nurses were interviewed (n = 12). The interviews also explored nurses’ experiences of working with health promotion in general, and were analysed by qualitative methodology. Adolescents’ empowerment was examined by a questionnaire (n = 1 046). Most participants reported reading in the documents; writing in the documents varied between 16% (distribution in occupational health) and 87% (adolescents). The health document was perceived as useful by 35% of the adolescents. Factors significantly related to personal usefulness were being born outside Sweden, experiencing fair treatment by teachers, being a non-smoker and having a positive school experience. Community health nurses were striving for a balance of being a doer of practical, disease-oriented tasks and a health-promotion communicator. The structural organisation in health care centres was important for their work with health promotion and the health document. Teachers were generally in favour of continued work with the document. In different settings, between 10% and 26% of adults reported changes in their health situations as a result of reading the booklet. Self-reported changes in health situations were less likely using postal distribution, and there were no significant differences between the other types of distribution. Adolescents with low empowerment scores reported poorer self-rated health and more risk-taking behaviours such as smoking and binge drinking. To conclude, personal health documents are feasible to use in different settings. Health promotion in health services needs active support from leaders as well as adequate support systems. Findings suggest that personal health documents can be tools for promoting self-reported lifestyle changes among adults in different settings. There is a close relation among adolescents between low empowerment in the domain of health, low self-rated health and health behaviours such as binge drinking and smoking.
  • Jerdén, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Personal health documents in school health education : a feasibility study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - : Sage Publications. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 35:6, s. 662-665
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To examine the feasibility of a school intervention using a personal health document adapted for adolescents. Methods: The health document was developed in close cooperation with groups of adolescents and tested among seventh-grade students at two junior high schools (n=339). The document was presented to the students by their regular teachers. For evaluation, an adolescent questionnaire was used at baseline and after one year. Results: After one year, 87% of adolescents reported having written in the health document, and 77% reported having had classes with discussions on subjects in the document. The health document was perceived as useful by 35% of the adolescents. Factors significantly related to personal usefulness were being born outside Sweden, experiencing fair treatment by teachers, being a non-smoker, and having a positive school experience. Conclusions: Implementation of a personal health document in junior high-school health education was feasible and well accepted.
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