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Sökning: WFRF:(Cannon Christopher P.) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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2.
  • Wang, Li-San, et al. (författare)
  • Rarity of the Alzheimer Disease-Protective APP A673T Variant in the United States.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA neurology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2168-6157 .- 2168-6149. ; 72:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, a rare variant in the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) was described in a population from Iceland. This variant, in which alanine is replaced by threonine at position 673 (A673T), appears to protect against late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated the frequency of this variant in AD cases and cognitively normal controls to determine whether this variant will significantly contribute to risk assessment in individuals in the United States.
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3.
  • Cannon, Christopher P., et al. (författare)
  • Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran after PCI in Atrial Fibrillation.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 377:16, s. 1513-1524
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Triple antithrombotic therapy with warfarin plus two antiplatelet agents is the standard of care after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with atrial fibrillation, but this therapy is associated with a high risk of bleeding.METHODS: inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) and no aspirin (110-mg and 150-mg dual-therapy groups). Outside the United States, elderly patients (≥80 years of age; ≥70 years of age in Japan) were randomly assigned to the 110-mg dual-therapy group or the triple-therapy group. The primary end point was a major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event during follow-up (mean follow-up, 14 months). The trial also tested for the noninferiority of dual therapy with dabigatran (both doses combined) to triple therapy with warfarin with respect to the incidence of a composite efficacy end point of thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or systemic embolism), death, or unplanned revascularization.RESULTS: The incidence of the primary end point was 15.4% in the 110-mg dual-therapy group as compared with 26.9% in the triple-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.63; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P<0.001 for superiority) and 20.2% in the 150-mg dual-therapy group as compared with 25.7% in the corresponding triple-therapy group, which did not include elderly patients outside the United States (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.88; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The incidence of the composite efficacy end point was 13.7% in the two dual-therapy groups combined as compared with 13.4% in the triple-therapy group (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.29; P=0.005 for noninferiority). The rate of serious adverse events did not differ significantly among the groups.CONCLUSIONS: inhibitor, and aspirin. Dual therapy was noninferior to triple therapy with respect to the risk of thromboembolic events. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim; RE-DUAL PCI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02164864)
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4.
  • Law, Philip J., et al. (författare)
  • Association analyses identify 31 new risk loci for colorectal cancer susceptibility
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and has a strong heritable basis. We report a genome-wide association analysis of 34,627 CRC cases and 71,379 controls of European ancestry that identifies SNPs at 31 new CRC risk loci. We also identify eight independent risk SNPs at the new and previously reported European CRC loci, and a further nine CRC SNPs at loci previously only identified in Asian populations. We use in situ promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C), gene expression, and in silico annotation methods to identify likely target genes of CRC SNPs. Whilst these new SNP associations implicate target genes that are enriched for known CRC pathways such as Wnt and BMP, they also highlight novel pathways with no prior links to colorectal tumourigenesis. These findings provide further insight into CRC susceptibility and enhance the prospects of applying genetic risk scores to personalised screening and prevention.
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5.
  • Lindholm, Daniel, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker-Based Risk Model to Predict Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 70:7, s. 813-826
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Currently, there is no generally accepted model to predict outcomes in stable coronary heart disease (CHD).Objectives This study evaluated and compared the prognostic value of biomarkers and clinical variables to develop a biomarker-based prediction model in patients with stable CHD.Methods In a prospective, randomized trial cohort of 13,164 patients with stable CHD, we analyzed several candidate biomarkers and clinical variables and used multivariable Cox regression to develop a clinical prediction model based on the most important markers. The primary outcome was cardiovascular (CV) death, but model performance was also explored for other key outcomes. It was internally bootstrap validated, and externally validated in 1,547 patients in another study.Results During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, there were 591 cases of CV death. The 3 most important biomarkers were N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, where NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT had greater prognostic value than any other biomarker or clinical variable. The final prediction model included age (A), biomarkers (B) (NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and clinical variables (C) (smoking, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral arterial disease). This “ABC-CHD” model had high discriminatory ability for CV death (c-index 0.81 in derivation cohort, 0.78 in validation cohort), with adequate calibration in both cohorts.Conclusions This model provided a robust tool for the prediction of CV death in patients with stable CHD. As it is based on a small number of readily available biomarkers and clinical factors, it can be widely employed to complement clinical assessment and guide management based on CV risk. (The Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy Trial [STABILITY]; NCT00799903)
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6.
  • Lindholm, Daniel P, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Multiple Biomarkers With Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality After Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Secondary Analysis of the PLATO Biomarker Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 3:12, s. 1160-1166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Mortality remains at about 5% within a year after an acute coronary syndrome event. Prior studies have assessed biomarkers in relation to all-cause or cardiovascular deaths but not across multiple causes.Objective: To assess if different biomarkers provide information about the risk for all-cause and cause-specific mortality.Design, Setting, and Participants: The Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial randomized 18 624 patients with acute coronary syndrome to ticagrelor or clopidogrel from October 2006 through July 2008. In this secondary analysis biomarker substudy, 17 095 patients participated.Main Outcomes and Measures: Death due to myocardial infarction, heart failure, sudden cardiac death/arrhythmia, bleeding, procedures, other vascular causes, and nonvascular causes, as well as all-cause death.Exposures: At baseline, levels of cystatin-C, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity troponin I and T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were determined.Results: The median (interquartile range) age of patients was 62.0 (54.0-71.0) years. Of 17 095 patients, 782 (4.6%) died during follow-up. The continuous associations between biomarkers and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were modeled using Cox models and presented as hazard ratio (HR) comparing the upper vs lower quartile. For all-cause mortality, NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were the strongest markers with adjusted HRs of 2.96 (95% CI, 2.33-3.76) and 2.65 (95% CI, 2.17-3.24), respectively. Concerning death due to heart failure, NT-proBNP was associated with an 8-fold and C-reactive protein, GDF-15, and cystatin-C, with a 3-fold increase in risk. Regarding sudden cardiac death/arrhythmia, NT-proBNP was associated with a 4-fold increased risk and GDF-15 with a doubling in risk. Growth differentiation factor-15 had the strongest associations with other vascular and nonvascular deaths and was possibly associated with death due to major bleeding (HR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.39-17.43).Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with acute coronary syndrome, baseline levels of NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were strong markers associated with all-cause death based on their associations with death due to heart failure as well as due to arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Growth differentiation factor-15 had the strongest associations with death due to other vascular or nonvascular causes and possibly with death due to bleeding.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00391872.
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7.
  • Lindholm, Daniel P, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers and Coronary Lesions Predict Outcomes after Revascularization in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:2, s. 573-584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Risk stratification in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) is currently mainly based on clinical characteristics. With routine invasive management, angiography findings and biomarkers are available and may improve prognostication. We aimed to assess if adding biomarkers [high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT-hs), N-terminal probrain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)] and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) might improve prognostication in revascularized patients with NSTE-ACS.METHODS: In the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, 5174 NSTE-ACS patients underwent initial angiography and revascularization and had cTnT-hs, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 measured. Cox models were developed adding extent of CAD and biomarker levels to established clinical risk variables for the composite of cardiovascular death (CVD)/spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), and CVD alone. Models were compared using c-statistic and net reclassification improvement (NRI).RESULTS: For the composite end point and CVD, prognostication improved when adding extent of CAD, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 to clinical variables (c-statistic 0.685 and 0.805, respectively, for full model vs 0.649 and 0.760 for clinical model). cTnT-hs did not contribute to prognostication. In the full model (clinical variables, extent of CAD, all biomarkers), hazard ratios (95% CI) per standard deviation increase were for cTnT-hs 0.93(0.81-1.05), NT-proBNP 1.32(1.13-1.53), GDF-15 1.20(1.07-1.36) for the composite end point, driven by prediction of CVD by NT-proBNP and GDF-15. For spontaneous MI, there was an association with NT-proBNP or GDF-15, but not with cTnT-hs.CONCLUSIONS: In revascularized patients with NSTE-ACS, the extent of CAD and concentrations of NT-proBNP and GDF-15 independently improve prognostication of CVD/spontaneous MI and CVD alone. This information may be useful for selection of patients who might benefit from more intense and/or prolonged antithrombotic treatment.
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8.
  • Lindholm, Daniel P, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15 at 1 Month After an Acute Coronary Syndrome Is Associated With Increased Risk of Major Bleeding.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is related to major bleeding when measured at initial presentation in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. It is unknown whether follow-up measurements provide additional information. The objective of this study was to investigate whether GDF-15 measured 1 month after an ACS provides additional information beyond the baseline levels with regard to the risk of major bleeding.METHODS AND RESULTS: GDF-15 was measured at baseline and at 1 month after an ACS in 4049 patients included in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. The association between 1-month GDF-15 level and non-coronary artery bypass grafting surgery-related major bleeding was assessed by a multivariable Cox model, adjusting for baseline GDF-15, age, anemia, impaired renal function, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, and sex. Elevated GDF-15 (>1800 ng/L) at 1 month was associated with an increased risk of non-coronary artery bypass grafting-related major bleeding (3.9% versus 1.2%; hazard ratio, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.89-6.06), independent of baseline GDF-15. Patients who had elevated GDF-15 levels at baseline and subsequent nonelevated GDF-15 at 1 month had a similar risk as patients who had nonelevated levels at both measurements.CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 at 1 month after an ACS is related to the risk of bleeding during DAPT and provides additional information on the bleeding risk beyond baseline GDF-15 levels. GDF-15 levels may therefore be useful as part of decision support concerning long-term antithrombotic treatment in patients post-ACS.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.
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9.
  • Stewart, Ralph A. H., et al. (författare)
  • Physical Activity and Mortality in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 70:14, s. 1689-1700
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Recommendations for physical activity in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) are based on modest evidence.OBJECTIVES The authors analyzed the association between self-reported exercise and mortality in patients with stable CHD.METHODS A total of 15,486 patients from 39 countries with stable CHD who participated in the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) study completed questions at baseline on hours spent each week taking mild, moderate, and vigorous exercise. Associations between the volume of habitual exercise in metabolic equivalents of task hours/week and adverse outcomes during a median follow-up of 3.7 years were evaluated.RESULTS A graded decrease in mortality occurred with increased habitual exercise that was steeper at lower compared with higher exercise levels. Doubling exercise volume was associated with lower all-cause mortality (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 0.85; adjusting for covariates, HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.93). These associations were similar for cardiovascular mortality (unadjusted HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.87; adjusted HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.96), but myocardial infarction and stroke were not associated with exercise volume after adjusting for covariates. The association between decrease in mortality and greater physical activity was stronger in the subgroup of patients at higher risk estimated by the ABC-CHD (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical-Coronary Heart Disease) risk score (p for interaction = 0.0007).CONCLUSIONS In patients with stable CHD, more physical activity was associated with lower mortality. The largest benefits occurred between sedentary patient groups and between those with the highest mortality risk.
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10.
  • Wallentin, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A(2) Activity Is a Marker of Risk But Not a Useful Target for Treatment in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 5:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - We evaluated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) activity in patients with stable coronary heart disease before and during treatment with darapladib, a selective Lp-PLA(2) inhibitor, in relation to outcomes and the effects of darapladib in the STABILITY trial.Methods and Results - Plasma Lp-PLA(2) activity was determined at baseline (n=14 500); at 1 month (n=13 709); serially (n=100) at 3, 6, and 18 months; and at the end of treatment. Adjusted Cox regression models evaluated associations between Lp-PLA(2) activity levels and outcomes. At baseline, the median Lp-PLA(2) level was 172.4 mu mol/min per liter (interquartile range 143.1-204.2 mu mol/min per liter). Comparing the highest and lowest Lp-PLA(2) quartile groups, the hazard ratios were 1.50 (95% CI 1.23-1.82) for the primary composite end point (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), 1.95 (95% CI 1.29-2.93) for hospitalization for heart failure, 1.42 (1.07-1.89) for cardiovascular death, and 1.37 (1.03-1.81) for myocardial infarction after adjustment for baseline characteristics, standard laboratory variables, and other prognostic biomarkers. Treatment with darapladib led to a approximate to 65% persistent reduction in median Lp-PLA(2) activity. There were no associations between on-treatment Lp-PLA(2) activity or changes of Lp-PLA(2) activity and outcomes, and there were no significant interactions between baseline and on-treatment Lp-PLA(2) activity or changes in Lp-PLA(2) activity levels and the effects of darapladib on outcomes.Conclusions - Although high Lp-PLA(2) activity was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, pharmacological lowering of Lp-PLA(2) activity by approximate to 65% did not significantly reduce cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease, regardless of the baseline level or the magnitude of change of Lp-PLA(2) activity.
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