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Sökning: WFRF:(Cannon Christopher P.) > (2020-2022)

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1.
  • Frangou, Sophia, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness across the lifespan : Data from 17,075 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : WILEY. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.
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2.
  • Dima, Danai, et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumes across the lifespan : Data from 18,605 healthy individuals aged 3–90 years
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 452-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3–90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.
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3.
  • Wierenga, Lara M., et al. (författare)
  • Greater male than female variability in regional brain structure across the lifespan
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 470-499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international data spanning nine decades of life. Subcortical volumes, cortical surface area and cortical thickness were assessed in MRI data of 16,683 healthy individuals 1-90 years old (47% females). We observed significant patterns of greater male than female between-subject variance for all subcortical volumetric measures, all cortical surface area measures, and 60% of cortical thickness measures. This pattern was stable across the lifespan for 50% of the subcortical structures, 70% of the regional area measures, and nearly all regions for thickness. Our findings that these sex differences are present in childhood implicate early life genetic or gene-environment interaction mechanisms. The findings highlight the importance of individual differences within the sexes, that may underpin sex-specific vulnerability to disorders.
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5.
  • Eccleston, David S., et al. (författare)
  • The effect of sex on the efficacy and safety of dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran versus triple therapy with warfarin after PCI in patients with atrial fibrillation (a RE-DUAL PCI subgroup analysis and comparison to other dual antithrombotic therapy trials)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cardiology. - 0160-9289 .- 1932-8737. ; 44:7, s. 1002-1010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe RE-DUAL PCI trial demonstrated that in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), dual therapy with dabigatran and a P2Y12 inhibitor, either clopidogrel or ticagrelor, reduced the risk of bleeding without an increased risk of thromboembolic events as compared to triple therapy with warfarin in addition to a P2Y12 inhibitor and aspirin. What remains unclear is whether this effect is consistent between males and females undergoing PCI.HypothesisThe reduction in risk of bleeding without increased risk of thromboembolic events with dual therapy with dabigatran and a P2Y12 inhibitor in comparison to triple therapy with warfarin, a P2Y12 inhibitor and aspirin is consistent in females and males.MethodsThe primary safety endpoint was the first International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) major bleeding event (MBE) or clinically relevant non-major bleeding event (CRNMBE). The efficacy endpoint was the composite of death, thromboembolic event (stroke, myocardial infarction, and systemic embolism) or unplanned revascularization. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were applied to calculate corresponding hazard ratios and interaction p values for each endpoint.ResultsA total of 655 women and 2070 men were enrolled. The risk of major or CRNM bleeding was lower with both dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy and dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy compared with warfarin triple therapy in female and male patients (for 110 mg: females: HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.47–1.01, males: HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.37–0.59, interaction p value: 0.084 and for 150 mg: females HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48–1.16, males HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56–0.90, interaction p value: 0.83). There was also no detectable difference in the composite efficacy endpoint of death, thromboembolic events or unplanned revascularization between dabigatran dual therapy and warfarin triple therapy, with no statistically significant interaction between sex and treatment (interaction p values: 0.73 and 0.72, respectively).ConclusionsConsistent with the overall study results, the risk of bleeding was lower with dabigatran 110 mg and 150 mg dual therapy compared with warfarin triple therapy, and risk of thromboembolic events was comparable with warfarin triple therapy independent of the patient's sex.
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6.
  • Navarese, Eliano P., et al. (författare)
  • Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Oral P2Y12 Inhibitors in Acute Coronary Syndrome Network Meta-Analysis of 52 816 Patients From 12 Randomized Trials
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 142:2, s. 150-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: New randomized, controlled trials have become available on oral P2Y(12)inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to evaluate current evidence comparing the efficacy and safety profile of prasugrel, ticagrelor, and clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome by a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Methods: We performed a network meta-analysis and direct pairwise comparison analysis of efficacy and safety outcomes from 12 randomized controlled trials including a total of 52 816 patients with acute coronary syndrome.Results: In comparison with clopidogrel, ticagrelor significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.72-0.92]) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.92]), whereas there was no statistically significant mortality reduction with prasugrel (HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.80-1.01] and HR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.84-1.02], respectively). In comparison with each other, there were no significant differences in mortality (HR prasugrel versus ticagrelor, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.94-1.29] and 1.12 [95% CI, 0.98-1.28]). In comparison with clopidogrel, prasugrel reduced myocardial infarction (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]), whereas ticagrelor showed no risk reduction (HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.78-1.22]). Differences between prasugrel and ticagrelor were not statistically significant. Stent thrombosis risk was significantly reduced by both ticagrelor and prasugrel versus clopidogrel (28%-50% range of reduction). In comparison with clopidogrel, both prasugrel (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.01-1.56]) and ticagrelor (HR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.04-1.55]) significantly increased major bleeding. There were no significant differences between prasugrel and ticagrelor for all outcomes explored.Conclusions: Prasugrel and ticagrelor reduced ischemic events and increased bleeding in comparison with clopidogrel. A significant mortality reduction was observed with ticagrelor only. There was no efficacy and safety difference between prasugrel and ticagrelor.
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7.
  • Tomasdottir, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Risk markers of incident atrial fibrillation in patients with coronary heart disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 233, s. 92-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIn patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We investigated the associations between clinical risk factors and biomarkers with incident AF in patients with CHD.Methods and resultsAround 13,153 patients with optimally treated CHD included in the STabilization of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY (STABILITY) trial with plasma samples obtained at randomization. Mean follow-up time was 3.5 years. The association between clinical risk factors and biomarkers with incident AF was estimated with Cox-regression models. Validation was performed in 1,894 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome included in the FRISC-II trial.The median (min-max) age was 64 years (range 26-92) and 2,514 (19.1%) were women. A total of 541 patients, annual incidence rate of 1.2%, developed AF during follow-up. In multivariable models, older age, higher levels of NT-proBNP, higher body mass index (BMI), male sex, geographic regions, low physical activity, and heart failure were independently associated with increased risk of incident AF with hazard ratios ranging from 1.04 to 1.79 (P ≤ .05). NT-proBNP improved the C-index from 0.70 to 0.71. In the validation cohort, age, BMI, and NT-proBNP were associated with increased risk of incident AF with similar hazard ratios.ConclusionsIn patients with optimally treated CHD, the incidence of new AF was 1.2% per year. Age, NT-proBNP as a marker of impaired cardiac function, and BMI were the strongest factors, independently and consistently associated with incident AF. Male sex and low physical activity may also contribute to the risk of AF in patients with CHD.
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8.
  • White, Harvey D., et al. (författare)
  • In patients with stable coronary heart disease, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels < 70 mg/dL and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c < 7% are associated with lower major cardiovascular events
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 225, s. 97-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundIn patients with stable coronary heart disease, it is not known whether achievement of standard of care (SOC) targets in addition to evidence-based medicine (EBM) is associated with lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke.MethodsEBM use was recommended in the STabilisation of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY trial. SOC targets were blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL. In patients with diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7% and BP of <130/80 mm Hg were recommended. Feedback to investigators about rates of EBM and SOC was provided regularly.ResultsIn 13,623 patients, 1-year landmark analysis assessed the association between EBM, SOC targets, and MACE during follow-up of 2.7 years (median) after adjustment in a Cox proportional hazards model.At 1 year, aspirin was prescribed in 92.5% of patients, statins in 97.2%, β-blockers in 79.0%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers in 76.9%. MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) compared with LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR] 0.694, 95% CI 0.594-0.811) and lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) (HR 0.834, 95% CI 0.708-0.983). MACE was lower with HbA1c < 7% compared with HbA1c ≥ 7% (HR 0.705, 95% CI 0.573-0.866). There was no effect of BP targets on MACE.ConclusionsMACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) and even lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. MACE in patients with diabetes was lower with HbA1c < 7%. Achievement of targets is associated with improved patient outcomes.
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9.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin 6 and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Coronary Syndrome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 6:12, s. 1440-1445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease and anti-inflammatory treatment reduces cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is unclear how inflammation mediated by interleukin 6 (IL-6) in patients with CKD is linked to cardiovascular disease.Objective: To investigate associations between IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic coronary syndrome in association with kidney function.Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included patients enrolled at 663 centers in 39 countries with chronic coronary syndrome who were included in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy (STABILITY) trial. Patients were enrolled between December 2008 and April 2010 and were followed up for a median length of 3.7 years. Analysis in this substudy began September 2020.Exposures: Exposures were IL-6 and creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), which were collected at baseline. Associations between continuous and categorical levels (<2.0 ng/L vs ≥2.0 ng/L) of IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes were tested in association with eGFR cutoffs (normal eGFR level [≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2], mildly decreased eGFR level [60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2], and moderately to severely decreased eGFR level [<60 mL/min/1.73 m2]).Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke.Results: This substudy of the STABILITY trial included 14 611 patients with available IL-6 levels at baseline. The median (interquartile range) age was 65 (59-71) years, and 2700 (18.5%) were female. During follow-up, MACE occurred in 1459 individuals (10.0%). Higher levels of IL-6 were in continuous models independently associated with risk of MACE (P < .001) in all CKD strata. Using predefined strata, elevated IL-6 level (≥2.0 vs <2.0 ng/L) was associated with increased risk of MACE at normal kidney function (2.9% vs 1.9% events/y [hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.78]), mild CKD (3.3% vs 1.9% [hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.83]), and moderate to severe CKD (5.0% vs 2.9% [hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.28-1.99]).Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with chronic coronary syndrome, elevated levels of IL-6 were associated with risk of MACE in all CKD strata. Thus, IL-6 and CKD stage may help when identifying patients with chronic coronary syndrome for anti-inflammatory treatment.
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10.
  • Berry, Natalia C., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Lesion Complexity and Clinical Risk Factors on the Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran Dual Therapy Versus Warfarin Triple Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention A Subgroup Analysis From the REDUAL PCI Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 1941-7640 .- 1941-7632. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The REDUAL PCI trial (Evaluation of Dual Therapy With Dabigatran vs Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With AF That Undergo a PCI With Stenting) demonstrated that, in patients with atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention, bleeding risk was lower with dabigatran plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor (dual therapy) than warfarin plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor and aspirin (triple therapy). Dual therapy was noninferior for risk of thromboembolic events. Whether these results apply equally to patients at higher risk of ischemic events due to lesion complexity or clinical risk factors is unclear. Methods: The primary end point was time to first major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event. The composite efficacy end point was death, thromboembolic event, or unplanned revascularization. Our prespecified subgroup analysis categorized patients by presence of procedural complexity and/or clinical complexity factors at baseline. A modified dual antiplatelet therapy score categorized patients according to degree of clinical risk. Results: Of 2725 patients, 43.1% had clinical complexity factors alone, 9.9% procedural factors alone, 10.0% both, and 37.0% neither. Risk of the primary bleeding end point was lower in both dabigatran dual therapy groups than warfarin triple therapy groups, regardless of procedural and/or clinical lesion complexity (interaction P values: 0.90 and 0.37, respectively). Importantly, a similar risk of the efficacy end point was observed between dabigatran dual and warfarin triple therapy, regardless of the presence of clinical or procedural complexity factors (interaction P values: 0.67 and 0.54, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively). Similar benefit was seen for each dose of dabigatran dual therapy for bleeding events regardless of dual antiplatelet therapy score (interaction P values: 0.53 and 0.54, respectively), with similar risk of thromboembolic events (interaction P values: 0.20 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy reduced bleeding risk compared with warfarin triple therapy, with a similar risk of thromboembolic outcomes, irrespective of procedural and/or clinical complexity and modified dual antiplatelet therapy score. Registration: URL: ; Unique identifier: NCT02164864.
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