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Sökning: WFRF:(Cirtwill Alyssa) > (2018)

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1.
  • Cirtwill, Alyssa, et al. (författare)
  • A review of species role concepts in food webs
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Food Webs. - 2352-2496. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many different concepts have been used to describe species' roles in food webs (i.e., the ways in which species participate in their communities as consumers and resources). As each concept focuses on a different aspect of food-web structure, it can be difficult to relate these concepts to each other and to other aspects of ecology. Here we use the Eltonian niche as an overarching framework, within which we summarize several commonly-used role concepts (degree, trophic level, motif roles, and centrality). We focus mainly on the topological versions of these concepts but, where dynamical versions of a role concept exist, we acknowledge these as well. Our aim is to highlight areas of overlap and ambiguity between different role concepts and to describe how these roles can be used to group species according to different strategies (i.e., equivalence and functional roles). The existence of “gray areas” between role concepts make it essential for authors to carefully consider both which role concept(s) are most appropriate for the analyses they wish to conduct and what aspect of species' niches (if any) they wish to address. The ecological meaning of differences between species' roles can change dramatically depending on which role concept(s) are used.
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2.
  • Cirtwill, Alyssa, et al. (författare)
  • Between-year changes in community composition shape species' roles in an Arctic plant-pollinator network
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Oikos. - : WILEY. - 0030-1299 .- 1600-0706. ; 127:8, s. 1163-1176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inter-annual turnover in community composition can affect the richness and functioning of ecological communities. If incoming and outgoing species do not interact with the same partners, ecological functions such as pollination may be disrupted. Here, we explore the extent to which turnover affects species' roles - as defined based on their participation in different motifs positions - in a series of temporally replicated plant-pollinator networks from high-Arctic Zackenberg, Greenland. We observed substantial turnover in the plant and pollinator assemblages, combined with significant variation in species' roles between networks. Variation in the roles of plants and pollinators tended to increase with the amount of community turnover, although a negative interaction between turnover in the plant and pollinator assemblages complicated this trend for the roles of pollinators. This suggests that increasing turnover in the future will result in changes to the roles of plants and likely those of pollinators. These changing roles may in turn affect the functioning or stability of this pollination network.
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3.
  • Cirtwill, Alyssa, et al. (författare)
  • Feeding environment and other traits shape species roles in marine food webs
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Ecology Letters. - : WILEY. - 1461-023X .- 1461-0248. ; 21:6, s. 875-884
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Food webs and meso-scale motifs allow us to understand the structure of ecological communities and define species roles within them. This species-level perspective on networks permits tests for relationships between species traits and their patterns of direct and indirect interactions. Such relationships could allow us to predict food-web structure based on more easily obtained trait information. Here, we calculated the roles of species (as vectors of motif position frequencies) in six well-resolved marine food webs and identified the motif positions associated with the greatest variation in species roles. We then tested whether the frequencies of these positions varied with species traits. Despite the coarse-grained traits we used, our approach identified several strong associations between traits and motifs. Feeding environment was a key trait in our models and may shape species roles by affecting encounter probabilities. Incorporating environment into future food-web models may improve predictions of an unknown network structure.
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