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Sökning: WFRF:(Cornel Jan H.) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Alexander, John H., et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban with Antiplatelet Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 365:8, s. 699-708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events.Results: The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P = 0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P = 0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo.Conclusions: The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events.
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2.
  • Tricoci, Pierluigi, et al. (författare)
  • Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 366:1, s. 20-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation.METHODS:In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization.RESULTS:Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups.CONCLUSIONS:In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527943.).
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3.
  • Becker, Richard C, et al. (författare)
  • Bleeding complications with the P2Y12 receptor antagonists clopidogrel and ticagrelor in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 32:23, s. 2933-2944
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimsMore intense platelet-directed therapy for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may increase bleeding risk. The aim of the current analysis was to determine the rate, clinical impact, and predictors of major and fatal bleeding complications in the PLATO study.Methods and resultsPLATO was a randomized, double-blind, active control international, phase 3 clinical trial in patients with acute ST elevation and non-ST-segment elevation ACS. A total of 18 624 patients were randomized to either ticagrelor, a non-thienopyridine, reversibly binding platelet P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, or clopidogrel in addition to aspirin. Patients randomized to ticagrelor and clopidogrel had similar rates of PLATO major bleeding (11.6 vs. 11.2%; P = 0.43), TIMI major bleeding (7.9 vs. 7.7%, P = 0.56) and GUSTO severe bleeding (2.9 vs. 3.1%, P = 0.22). Procedure-related bleeding rates were also similar. Non-CABG major bleeding (4.5 vs. 3.8%, P = 0.02) and non-procedure-related major bleeding (3.1 vs. 2.3%, P = 0.05) were more common in ticagrelor-treated patients, primarily after 30 days on treatment. Fatal bleeding and transfusion rates did not differ between groups. There were no significant interactions for major bleeding or combined minor plus major bleeding between treatment groups and age ≥75 years, weight <60 kg, region, chronic kidney disease, creatinine clearance <60 mL/min, aspirin dose >325 mg on the day of randomization, pre-randomization clopidogrel administration, or clopidogrel loading dose.Conclusion Ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with similar total major bleeding but increased non-CABG and non-procedure-related major bleeding, primarily after 30 days on study drug treatment. Fatal bleeding was low and did not differ between groups.
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4.
  • Brilakis, Emmanouil S., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of ticagrelor on the outcomes of patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery : Insights from the PLATelet inhibition and patient outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 166:3, s. 474-480
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) who present with an acute coronary syndrome have a high risk for recurrent events. Whether intensive antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor might be beneficial compared with clopidogrel is unknown. In this substudy of the PLATO trial, we studied the effects of randomized treatment dependent on history of CABG. Methods Patients participating in PLATO were classified according to whether they had undergone prior CABG. The trial's primary and secondary end points were compared using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Of the 18,613 study patients, 1,133 (6.1%) had prior CABG. Prior-CABG patients had more high-risk characteristics at study entry and a 2-fold increase in clinical events during follow-up, but less major bleeding. The primary end point (composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) was reduced to a similar extent by ticagrelor among patients with (19.6% vs 21.4%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.91 [0.67, 1.24]) and without (9.2% vs 11.0%; adjusted HR, 0.86 [0.77, 0.96]; P-interaction = .73) prior CABG. Major bleeding was similar with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel among patients with (8.1% vs 8.7%; adjusted HR, 0.89 [0.55, 1.47]) and without (11.8% vs 11.4%; HR, 1.08 [0.98, 1.20]; P-interaction =.46) prior CABG. Conclusions Prior-CABG patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome are a high-risk cohort for death and recurrent cardiovascular events but have a lower risk for major bleeding. Similar to the results in no-prior-CABG patients, ticagrelor was associated with a reduction in ischemic events without an increase in major bleeding.
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5.
  • Cornel, Jan H., et al. (författare)
  • Prior smoking status, clinical outcomes, and the comparison of ticagrelor with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndromes-Insights from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 164:3, s. 334-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Habitual smoking has been associated with increased platelet reactivity, increased risk of thrombotic complications and greater efficacy of clopidogrel therapy over placebo. In the PLATO trial, ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) reduced the primary composite end point of vascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke, without increasing overall rates of major bleeding. We evaluated the results in relation to smoking habits.Methods Interactions between habitual smokers (n = 6678) and in ex/nonsmokers (n = 11,932) and the effects of randomized treatments on ischemic and bleeding outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression analyses.Results Habitual smokers had an overall lower risk profile and more often ST-elevation ACS. After adjustment for baseline imbalances, habitual smoking was associated with a higher incidence of definite stent thrombosis (adjusted HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.07-1.94]); there were no significant associations with other ischemic or bleeding end points. The effects of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel were consistent for all outcomes regardless of smoking status. Thus, there was a similar reduction in the primary composite end point for habitual smokers (adjusted HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.68-1.00]) and ex/nonsmokers (adjusted HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.79-1.00]) (interaction P = .50), and in definite stent thrombosis for habitual smokers (adjusted HR, 0.59 [0.39-0.91]) and ex/nonsmokers (adjusted HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.45-1.07]) (interaction P = .61).Conclusions In patients hospitalized with ACS, habitual smoking is associated with a greater risk of subsequent stent thrombosis. The reduction of vascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and stent thrombosis by ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel is consistent regardless of smoking habits.
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6.
  • Gurbel, Paul A., et al. (författare)
  • Platelet Function During Extended Prasugrel and Clopidogrel Therapy for Patients With ACS Treated Without Revascularization The TRILOGY ACS Platelet Function Substudy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598. ; 308:17, s. 1785-1794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context The relationship of platelet function testing measurements with outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) initially managed medically without revascularization is unknown. Objective To characterize the differences and evaluate clinical outcomes associated with platelet reactivity among patients with ACS treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel. Design, Setting, and Patients Patients with medically managed unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were enrolled in the TRILOGY ACS trial (2008 to 2011) comparing clopidogrel vs prasugrel. Of 9326 participants, 27.5% were included in a platelet function substudy: 1286 treated with prasugrel and 1278 treated with clopidogrel. Interventions Aspirin with either prasugrel (10 or 5 mg/d) or clopidogrel (75 mg/d); those 75 years or older and younger than 75 years but who weighed less than 60 kg received a 5-mg prasugrel maintenance dose. Main Outcome Measures Platelet reactivity, measured in P2Y(12) reaction units (PRUs), was performed at baseline, at 2 hours, and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after randomization. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke through 30 months. Results Among participants younger than 75 years and weighing 60 kg or more, the median PRU values at 30 days were 64 (interquartile range [IQR], 33-128) in the prasugrel group vs 200 (IQR, 141-260) in the clopidogrel group (P<.001), a difference that persisted through all subsequent time points. For participants younger than 75 years and weighing less than 60 kg, the median 30-day PRU values were 139 (IQR, 86-203) for the prasugrel group vs 209 (IQR, 148-283) for the clopidogrel group (P<.001), and for participants 75 years or older, the median PRU values were 164 (IQR, 105-216) for the prasugrel group vs 222 (IQR, 148-268) for the clopidogrel group (P<.001). At 30 months the rate of the primary efficacy end point was 17.2% (160 events) in the prasugrel group vs 18.9% (180 events) in the clopidogrel group (P=.29). There were no significant differences in the continuous distributions of 30-day PRU values for participants with a primary efficacy end point event after 30 days (n=214) compared with participants without an event (n=1794; P=.07) and no significant relationship between the occurence of the primary efficacy end point and continuous PRU values (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for increase of 60 PRUs, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.96-1.11; P=.44). Similar findings were observed with 30-day PRU cut points used to define high on-treatment platelet reactivity-PRU more than 208 (adjusted HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.89-1.52, P=.28) and PRU more than 230 (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.90-1.61; P=.21). Conclusions Among patients with ACS without ST-segment elevation and initially managed without revascularization, prasugrel was associated with lower platelet reactivity than clopidogrel, irrespective of age, weight, and dose. Among those in the platelet substudy, no significant differences existed between prasugrel vs clopidogrel in the occurence of the primary efficacy end point through 30 months and no significant association existed between platelet reactivity and occurrence of ischemic outcomes.
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7.
  • Gurbel, Paul A., et al. (författare)
  • Translational platelet research in patients with coronary artery disease: hat are the rnalor knowledge gaps?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Schattauer GmbH. - 0340-6245. ; 108:1, s. 12-20
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Translational platelet function investigations performed in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-treated population receiving clopidogrel have identified high platelet reactivity to ADP (HPR) as a major risk factor for both acute as well as long-term ischaemic event occurrence, including stent thrombosis. Recent studies have highlighted the relation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes involved in clopidogrel absorption and metabolism to reduced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to clopidogrel. CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LoF) allele carriage has been associated with increased thrombotic risk in the PCI population. However, there is no information regarding the utility of platelet function testing to predict outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease and in medically managed patients with acute coronary syndromes. Additionally, few studies have included longitudinal assessment of platelet function to assess a potential time-dependent relation to ischaemic event occurrence and no phase-III antiplatelet-therapy trial has included a large enough platelet function sub-study to examine the relation between on-treatment platelet reactivity, bleeding, and ischaemic event occurrence. Therefore, futher studies are needed to delineate the role of platelet function testing across the spectrum of symptomatic coronary artery disease.
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8.
  • James, Stefan K., et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes intended for non-invasive management : substudy from prospective randomised PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. - 1756-1833. ; 342, s. d3527-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes in patients in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial who at randomisation were planned for a non-invasive treatment strategy. Design Pre-specified analysis of pre-randomisation defined subgroup of prospective randomised clinical trial. Setting 862 centres in 43 countries. Participants 5216 (28%) of 18 624 patients admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome who were specified as planned for non-invasive management. Interventions Randomised treatment with ticagrelor (n=2601) versus clopidogrel (2615). Main outcome measurements Primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke; their individual components; and PLATO defined major bleeding during one year. Results 2183 (41.9%) patients had coronary angiography during their initial hospital admission, 1065 (20.4%) had percutaneous coronary intervention, and 208 (4.0%) had coronary artery bypass surgery. Cumulatively, 3143 (60.3%) patients had been managed non-invasively by the end of follow-up. The incidence of the primary end point was lower with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel (12.0% (n=295) v 14.3% (346); hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.00; P=0.04). Overall mortality was also lower (6.1% (147) v 8.2% (195); 0.75, 0.61 to 0.93; P=0.01). The incidence of total major bleeding (11.9% (272) v 10.3% (238); 1.17, 0.98 to 1.39; P=0.08) and non-coronary artery bypass grafting related major bleeding (4.0% (90) v 3.1% (71); 1.30, 0.95 to 1.77; P=0.10) was numerically higher with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel. Conclusions In patients with acute coronary syndrome initially intended for non-invasive management, the benefits of ticagrelor over clopidogrel were consistent with those from the overall PLATO results, indicating the broad benefits of P2Y12 inhibition with ticagrelor regardless of intended management strategy.
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9.
  • James, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndromes in Relation to Renal Function Results From the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 122:11, s. 1056-1067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Reduced renal function is associated with a poorer prognosis and increased bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes and may therefore alter the risk-benefit ratio with antiplatelet therapies. In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel reduced the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke at 12 months but with similar major bleeding rates. Methods and Results-Central laboratory serum creatinine levels were available in 15 202 (81.9%) acute coronary syndrome patients at baseline, and creatinine clearance, estimated by the Cockcroft Gault equation, was calculated. In patients with chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance <60 mL/min; n = 3237), ticagrelor versus clopidogrel significantly reduced the primary end point to 17.3% from 22.0% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.90) with an absolute risk reduction greater than that of patients with normal renal function (n = 11 965): 7.9% versus 8.9% (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.02). In patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor reduced total mortality (10.0% versus 14.0%; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89). Major bleeding rates, fatal bleedings, and non-coronary bypass-related major bleedings were not significantly different between the 2 randomized groups (15.1% versus 14.3%; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.30; 0.34% versus 0.77%; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.54; and 8.5% versus 7.3%; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.68). The interactions between creatinine clearance and randomized treatment on any of the outcome variables were nonsignificant. Conclusions-In acute coronary syndrome patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduces ischemic end points and mortality without a significant increase in major bleeding but with numerically more non-procedure-related bleeding.
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10.
  • James, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and diabetes: a substudy from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 1522-9645 .- 0195-668X. ; 31:24, s. 3006-3016
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have high platelet reactivity and are at increased risk of ischaemic events and bleeding post-acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, ticagrelor reduced the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, but with similar rates of major bleeding compared with clopidogrel. We aimed to investigate the outcome with ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in patients with DM or poor glycaemic control. We analysed patients with pre-existing DM (n = 4662), including 1036 patients on insulin, those without DM (n = 13 951), and subgroups based on admission levels of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; n = 15 150). In patients with DM, the reduction in the primary composite endpoint (HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.76-1.03), all-cause mortality (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.66-1.01), and stent thrombosis (HR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.36-1.17) with no increase in major bleeding (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.81-1.12) with ticagrelor was consistent with the overall cohort and without significant diabetes status-by-treatment interactions. There was no heterogeneity between patients with or without ongoing insulin treatment. Ticagrelor reduced the primary endpoint, all-cause mortality, and stent thrombosis in patients with HbA1c above the median (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.91; HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.93; and HR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-1.00, respectively) with similar bleeding rates (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12). Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced ischaemic events in ACS patients irrespective of diabetic status and glycaemic control, without an increase in major bleeding events.
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