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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Cuzick J) srt2:(2000-2004)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Cuzick J) > (2000-2004)

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1.
  • Beral, V, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer - collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58515 women with breast cancer and 95067 women without the disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 87, s. 1234-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19 - 1.45, P < 0.00001) for an intake of 35 - 44 g per day alcohol, and 1.46 (1.33 - 1.61, P < 0.00001) for greater than or equal to 45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1 % per 10 g per day, P < 0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers= 1.03, 95% CI 0.98 - 1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92 - 1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were the findings materially confounded by any of these factors. If the observed relationship for alcohol is causal, these results suggest that about 4% of the breast cancers in developed countries are attributable to alcohol. In developing countries, where alcohol consumption among controls averaged only 0.4 g per day, alcohol would have a negligible effect on the incidence of breast cancer. In conclusion, smoking has little or no independent effect on the risk of developing breast cancer; the effect of alcohol on breast cancer needs to be interpreted in the context of its beneficial effects, in moderation, on cardiovascular disease and its harmful effects on cirrhosis and cancers of the mouth, larynx, oesophagus and liver. (C) 2002 Cancer Research UK.
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2.
  • Scott, David R, et al. (författare)
  • Use of human papillomavirus DNA testing to compare equivocal cervical cytologic interpretations in the United States, Scandinavia, and the United Kingdom
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1097-0142 .- 0008-543X. ; 96:1, s. 14-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing may be useful in clarifying equivocal cervical cytologic interpretations. One application might be to standardize the meaning of equivocal interpretations from laboratories in various regions. Because international differences may be particularly marked, international comparisons of emerging data will require clear translations of "equivocal" and similar terms. METHODS: To perform a three-country comparison, the authors selected a morphologically diverse set of 188 conventional Papanicolaou tests initially classified as "squamous atypia" from a study of more than 20,000 women in Portland, Oregon (1989-1990). Previously, five U.S. expert cytopathologists independently interpreted the slides with screening cytotechnologists' marks in place. For this comparison, one British and two Scandinavian reviewers involved in HPV research reviewed the slides after original marks had been removed. The authors compared all eight reviewers' classifications of negative, equivocal, or abnormal in a series of pairwise comparisons using the kappa statistic. They then compared cytologic interpretations with HPV DNA testing. RESULTS: Oncogenic HPV DNA detection was significantly associated with increasingly abnormal interpretations for each reader. The British reader tended to rate tests as more abnormal than the American pathologists did, whereas the Scandinavians tended to rate tests as more normal. Reference to the HPV DNA standard clarified the tendency of readers to render systematically more or less severe interpretations. For example, the Scandinavian cytologists discounted subtle (often HPV-associated) changes in favor of cytologic certainty, making HPV triage of equivocal tests less applicable there. CONCLUSIONS: International research on cytopathology, particularly on the possible uses of HPV DNA testing, will require calibration of local cytologic definitions.
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6.
  • Duffy, SW, et al. (författare)
  • Correcting for non-compliance bias in case-control studies to evaluate cancer screening programmes
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Royal Statistic Society, Series C. - 0035-9254 .- 1467-9876. ; 51, s. 235-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the evaluation of uncontrolled service screening programmes for cancer, the case-control design is sometimes used, in which people who die from the disease in question are compared with live controls with respect to screening histories, Such a design tends to yield estimates of relative mortality in voluntary participants compared with non-participants. This may bias results, since compliers and non-compliers may differ a priori in ways which are not related to screening but which nevertheless affect the risk of death from the disease. We present a simple method, employing external data from previously published randomized controlled trials of screening, of correction for this bias. We illustrate it by using data from a case-control study performed within the invited arm of the Malmo mammographic screening trial, a prospective study from the service screening programme in two counties in Sweden, and a matched case-control study of mammographic screening in Florence, Italy.
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