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Sökning: WFRF:(Dadvand Payam) > (2021)

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  • Kivimäki, Mika, et al. (författare)
  • Modifications to residential neighbourhood characteristics and risk of 79 common health conditions : a prospective cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Public Health. - : Elsevier. - 2468-2667. ; 6:6, s. e396-e407
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Observational studies have identified a link between unfavourable neighbourhood characteristics and increased risk of morbidity, but it is unclear whether changes in neighbourhoods affect future disease risk. We used a data-driven approach to assess the impact of neighbourhood modification on 79 health outcomes.METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we used pooled, individual-level data from two Finnish cohort studies: the Health and Social Support study and the Finnish Public Sector study. Neighbourhood characteristics (mean educational level, median income, and employment rate of residents, and neighbourhood green space) and individual lifestyle factors of community-dwelling individuals were assessed at baseline (at different waves starting between 1998 and 2013). We repeated assessment of neighbourhood characteristics and lifestyle factors approximately 5 years from each baseline assessment, after which follow-up began for health conditions diagnosed according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases for 79 common health conditions using linkage to electronic health records. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of incident disease associated with neighbourhood characteristics and changes in neighbourhood characteristics over time and logistic regression analysis to compute adjusted odds of association between changes in neighbourhood characteristics and individual lifestyle factors.FINDINGS: 114 786 individuals (87 012 [75·8%] women; mean age 44·4 years [SD 11·1]) had complete data and were included in this cohort study. During 1·17 million person-years at risk, we recorded 164 368 new-onset health conditions and 3438 deaths. Favourable changes in neighbourhood characteristics were associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and incidence of 19 specific health conditions. Unfavourable changes were correspondingly associated with increased risk of mortality and 27 specific health conditions. Among participants who did not move residence during the observation period, relative to individuals who continually lived in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, those who experienced favourable modifications in neighbourhood characteristics had a lower risk of future diabetes (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·93), stroke (0·49, 0·29-0·83), skin disease (0·72, 0·53-0·97), and osteoarthritis (0·87, 0·77-0·99). Living in a neighbourhood with improving characteristics was also associated with improvements in individual-level health-related lifestyle factors. Among participants who lived in advantaged residential environments at baseline, unfavourable changes in neighbourhood characteristics were associated with an increased risk of diabetes, stroke, skin disease, and osteoarthritis compared with individuals who lived in advantaged neighbourhoods throughout the study period.INTERPRETATION: Favourable modifications to residential neighbourhoods showed robust, longitudinal associations with a range of improvements in health outcomes, including improved health behaviours and reduced risk of cardiometabolic, infectious, and orthopaedic conditions.FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, US National Institute on Aging, NordForsk, and Academy of Finland.
  • Triebner, Kai, et al. (författare)
  • Ultraviolet radiation as a predictor of sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women : A European multi-center study (ECRHS)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Maturitas. - : Elsevier. - 0378-5122 .- 1873-4111. ; 145, s. 49-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) affects the body through pathways that exhibit positive as well as negative health effects such as immunoregulation and vitamin D production. Different vitamin D metabolites are associated with higher or lower concentrations of estrogens and may thus alter the female sex hormone balance.Objective: To study whether exposure to UVR, as a modifiable lifestyle factor, is associated with levels of sex hormones (17β-estradiol, estrone, estrone 3-sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone) as well as sex hormone binding globulin in postmenopausal women, and thus investigate whether managing UVR exposure can influence the hormone balance, with potential benefits for the biological aging process.Methods: The study included 580 postmenopausal women from six European countries, participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (2010–2014). Average UVR exposure during the month before blood sampling was estimated based on personal sun behavior and ambient levels. Hormone concentrations were measured in serum using state-of-the-art methods. Subsequently we applied linear mixed-effects models, including center as random intercept, hormone concentrations (one at a time) as outcome and UVR, age, skin type, body mass index, vitamin D from dietary sources, smoking, age at completed full-time education and season of blood sampling as fixed-effect predictors.Results: One interquartile range increase in UVR exposure was associated with decreased levels of 17β-estradiol (-15.6 pmol/L, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): -27.69, -3.51) and estrone (-13.36 pmol/L, 95 % CI: -26.04, -0.68) and increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone (9.34IU/L, 95 % CI: 2.91, 15.77) and luteinizing hormone (13.86 IU/daL, 95 % CI: 2.48, 25.25).Conclusions: Exposure to UVR is associated with decreased estrogens and increased gonadotropins in postmenopausal women, a status associated with osteoporosis, lung function decline and other adverse health effects. This study indicates that managing UVR exposure has potential to influence the hormone balance and counteract adverse health conditions after menopause.
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