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Sökning: WFRF:(De Luca Leonardo) > (2020-2024)

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  • Sartelli, Massimo, et al. (författare)
  • Ten golden rules for optimal antibiotic use in hospital settings: the WARNING call to action
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: WORLD JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY SURGERY. - 1749-7922. ; 18:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antibiotics are recognized widely for their benefits when used appropriately. However, they are often used inappropriately despite the importance of responsible use within good clinical practice. Effective antibiotic treatment is an essential component of universal healthcare, and it is a global responsibility to ensure appropriate use. Currently, pharmaceutical companies have little incentive to develop new antibiotics due to scientific, regulatory, and financial barriers, further emphasizing the importance of appropriate antibiotic use. To address this issue, the Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery established an international multidisciplinary task force of 295 experts from 115 countries with different backgrounds. The task force developed a position statement called WARNING (Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance National/International Network Group) aimed at raising awareness of antimicrobial resistance and improving antibiotic prescribing practices worldwide. The statement outlined is 10 axioms, or "golden rules," for the appropriate use of antibiotics that all healthcare workers should consistently adhere in clinical practice.
  • Botvinik-Nezer, Rotem, et al. (författare)
  • Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 582, s. 84-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses(1). The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset(2-5). Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed. The results obtained by seventy different teams analysing the same functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset show substantial variation, highlighting the influence of analytical choices and the importance of sharing workflows publicly and performing multiple analyses.
  • Capodanno, Davide, et al. (författare)
  • Defining Strategies of Modulation of Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease : A Consensus Document from the Academic Research Consortium
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 147:25, s. 1933-1944
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Antiplatelet therapy is the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment to prevent thrombotic or ischemic events in patients with coronary artery disease treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and those treated medically for an acute coronary syndrome. The use of antiplatelet therapy comes at the expense of an increased risk of bleeding complications. Defining the optimal intensity of platelet inhibition according to the clinical presentation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and individual patient factors is a clinical challenge. Modulation of antiplatelet therapy is a medical action that is frequently performed to balance the risk of thrombotic or ischemic events and the risk of bleeding. This aim may be achieved by reducing (ie, de-escalation) or increasing (ie, escalation) the intensity of platelet inhibition by changing the type, dose, or number of antiplatelet drugs. Because de-escalation or escalation can be achieved in different ways, with a number of emerging approaches, confusion arises with terminologies that are often used interchangeably. To address this issue, this Academic Research Consortium collaboration provides an overview and definitions of different strategies of antiplatelet therapy modulation for patients with coronary artery disease, including but not limited to those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and consensus statements on standardized definitions.
  • Arun, K. G., et al. (författare)
  • New horizons for fundamental physics with LISA
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Living Reviews in Relativity. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1433-8351 .- 2367-3613. ; 25:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundamental physics where LISA observations of gravitational waves can be expected to provide key input. We provide the briefest of reviews to then delineate avenues for future research directions and to discuss connections between this working group, other working groups and the consortium work package teams. These connections must be developed for LISA to live up to its science potential in these areas.
  • Azevedo, Flavio, et al. (författare)
  • Social and moral psychology of COVID-19 across 69 countries
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : NATURE PORTFOLIO. - 2052-4463. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all domains of human life, including the economic and social fabric of societies. One of the central strategies for managing public health throughout the pandemic has been through persuasive messaging and collective behaviour change. To help scholars better understand the social and moral psychology behind public health behaviour, we present a dataset comprising of 51,404 individuals from 69 countries. This dataset was collected for the International Collaboration on Social & Moral Psychology of COVID-19 project (ICSMP COVID-19). This social science survey invited participants around the world to complete a series of moral and psychological measures and public health attitudes about COVID-19 during an early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (between April and June 2020). The survey included seven broad categories of questions: COVID-19 beliefs and compliance behaviours; identity and social attitudes; ideology; health and well-being; moral beliefs and motivation; personality traits; and demographic variables. We report both raw and cleaned data, along with all survey materials, data visualisations, and psychometric evaluations of key variables.
  • Carrick, Richard T., et al. (författare)
  • Implantable cardioverter defibrillator use in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in North America and Europe
  • 2024
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are critical for preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). This study aims to identify cross-continental differences in utilization of primary prevention ICDs and survival free from sustained ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in ARVC.Methods This was a retrospective analysis of ARVC patients without prior VA enrolled in clinical registries from 11 countries throughout Europe and North America. Patients were classified according to whether they received treatment in North America or Europe and were further stratified by baseline predicted VA risk into low- (<10%/5 years), intermediate- (10%-25%/5 years), and high-risk (>25%/5 years) groups. Differences in ICD implantation and survival free from sustained VA events (including appropriate ICD therapy) were assessed.Results One thousand ninety-eight patients were followed for a median of 5.1 years; 554 (50.5%) received a primary prevention ICD, and 286 (26.0%) experienced a first VA event. After adjusting for baseline risk factors, North Americans were more than three times as likely to receive ICDs {hazard ratio (HR) 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5, 3.8]} but had only mildly increased risk for incident sustained VA [HR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.8)]. North Americans without ICDs were at higher risk for incident sustained VA [HR 2.1 (95% CI 1.3, 3.4)] than Europeans.Conclusions North American ARVC patients were substantially more likely than Europeans to receive primary prevention ICDs across all arrhythmic risk strata. A lower rate of ICD implantation in Europe was not associated with a higher rate of VA events in those without ICDs.
  • Van Bavel, Jay J., et al. (författare)
  • National identity predicts public health support during a global pandemic
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Portfolio. - 2041-1723. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding collective behaviour is an important aspect of managing the pandemic response. Here the authors show in a large global study that participants that reported identifying more strongly with their nation reported greater engagement in public health behaviours and support for public health policies in the context of the pandemic. Changing collective behaviour and supporting non-pharmaceutical interventions is an important component in mitigating virus transmission during a pandemic. In a large international collaboration (Study 1, N = 49,968 across 67 countries), we investigated self-reported factors associated with public health behaviours (e.g., spatial distancing and stricter hygiene) and endorsed public policy interventions (e.g., closing bars and restaurants) during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-May 2020). Respondents who reported identifying more strongly with their nation consistently reported greater engagement in public health behaviours and support for public health policies. Results were similar for representative and non-representative national samples. Study 2 (N = 42 countries) conceptually replicated the central finding using aggregate indices of national identity (obtained using the World Values Survey) and a measure of actual behaviour change during the pandemic (obtained from Google mobility reports). Higher levels of national identification prior to the pandemic predicted lower mobility during the early stage of the pandemic (r = -0.40). We discuss the potential implications of links between national identity, leadership, and public health for managing COVID-19 and future pandemics.
  • Cascini, Silvia, et al. (författare)
  • Case Identification and Characterization of Migrants with Dementia in the Lazio Region Using Health Administrative Data
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 92:3, s. 843-852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A crucial step for planning effective public health policies for migrants with dementia is the collection of data on the local dimensions of the phenomenon and patients’ characteristics.Objective: This study aimed to identify and characterize migrants with dementia in the Lazio region using health administrative databases.Methods: Residents with dementia aged 50 years or older, living in the Lazio region as of December 31, 2018, were identified using a validated algorithm based on hospital discharge(s), claims for antidementia drugs, and co-payment exemption for dementia. Migrants were defined as people born abroad and grouped in migrants from High Migratory Pressure Countries (HMPCs) and Highly Developed Countries (HDCs). Overall and age-specific prevalence rates were estimated in native- and foreign-born patients.Results: Dementia was ascertained in 38,460 residents. Among them, 37,280 (96.9%) were born in Italy, 337 (0.9%) were migrants from HDCs, and 843 (2.2%) from HMPCs. Dementia prevalence was higher among natives (1.15%, 95% CI 1.14–1.16) relative to migrants from HDCs (0.60%, 95% CI 0.54–0.67) and HMPCs (0.29%, 95% CI 0.27–0.31). The prevalence of comorbidities did not differ between groups. Migrants with dementia had a lower likelihood of receiving antidementia treatments compared with natives (51.6% in migrants from HDCs, 49.3% in migrants from HMPCs, and 53.5% among Italians).Conclusion: Routinely collected data in healthcare administrative databases can support the identification of migrants with dementia. Migrants exhibited a lower age-standardized prevalence of registered dementia and lower access to dedicated treatments than Italians. These findings are suggestive of underdiagnosis and undertreatment of dementia in migrants.
  • Peng, Y. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Doping dependence of the electron-phonon coupling in two families of bilayer superconducting cuprates
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. - 2469-9969 .- 2469-9950. ; 105:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While electron-phonon coupling (EPC) is crucial for Cooper pairing in conventional superconductors, its role in high-Tc superconducting cuprates is debated. Using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the oxygen K edge, we study the EPC in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) and Nd1+xBa2-xCu3O7-δ (NBCO) at different doping levels ranging from heavily underdoped (p=0.07) to overdoped (p=0.21). We analyze the data with a localized Lang-Firsov model that allows for the coherent excitations of two phonon modes. While electronic band dispersion effects are non-negligible, we are able to perform a study of the relative values of EPC matrix elements in these cuprate families. In the case of NBCO, the choice of the excitation energy allows us to disentangle modes related to the CuO chains and the CuO2 planes. Combining the results from the two families, we find the EPC strength decreases with doping at q∥=(-0.25,0) r.l.u., but has a nonmonotonic trend as a function of doping at smaller momenta. This behavior is attributed to the screening effect of charge carriers. We also find that the phonon intensity is enhanced in the vicinity of the charge-density-wave excitations while the extracted EPC strength appears to be less sensitive to their proximity. By performing a comparative study of two cuprate families, we are able to identify general trends in the EPC for the cuprates and provide experimental input to theories invoking a synergistic role for this interaction in d-wave pairing.
  • Steg, Philippe Gabriel, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease : a European economic evaluation of the THEMIS trial.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. - : Oxford University Press. - 2055-6837 .- 2055-6845. ; 8:8, s. 777-785
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To conduct a health economic evaluation of ticagrelor in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD) from a multinational payer perspective. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of ticagrelor were evaluated in the overall effect of Ticagrelor on Health Outcomes in Diabetes Mellitus Patients Intervention Study (THEMIS) trial population and in the predefined patient group with prior percutaneous coronary intervention.METHODS AND RESULTS: A Markov model was developed to extrapolate patient outcomes over a lifetime horizon. The primary outcome was incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), which were compared with conventional willingness-to-pay thresholds [€47 000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in Sweden and €30 000/QALY in other countries].Treatment with ticagrelor resulted in QALY gains of up to 0.045 in the overall population and 0.099 in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Increased costs and benefits translated to ICERs ranged between €27 894 and €42 252/QALY across Sweden, Germany, Italy, and Spain in the overall population. In patients with prior PCI, estimated ICERs improved to €18 449, €20 632, €20 233, and €13 228/QALY in Sweden, Germany, Italy, and Spain, respectively, driven by higher event rates and treatment benefit.CONCLUSION: Based on THEMIS results, ticagrelor plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone may be cost-effective in some European countries in patients with T2DM and CAD and no prior myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. Additionally, ticagrelor is likely to be cost-effective across European countries in patients with a history of PCI.
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