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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Dharmage Shyamali C.) srt2:(2018)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Dharmage Shyamali C.) > (2018)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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1.
  • Marcon, A., et al. (författare)
  • Trends in smoking initiation in Europe over 40 years: A retrospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Tobacco consumption is the largest avoidable health risk. Understanding changes of smoking over time and across populations is crucial to implementing health policies. We evaluated trends in smoking initiation between 1970 and 2009 in random samples of European populations. We pooled data from six multicentre studies involved in the Ageing Lungs in European Cohorts consortium, including overall 119,104 subjects from 17 countries (range of median ages across studies: 33-52 years). We estimated retrospectively trends in the rates of smoking initiation (uptake of regular smoking) by age group, and tested birth cohort effects using Age-Period-Cohort (APC) modelling. We stratified all analyses by sex and region (North, East, South, West Europe). Smoking initiation during late adolescence (16-20 years) declined for both sexes and in all regions (except for South Europe, where decline levelled off after 1990). By the late 2000s, rates of initiation during late adolescence were still high (40-80 per 1000/year) in East, South, and West Europe compared to North Europe (20 per 1000/year). Smoking initiation rates during early adolescence (11-15 years) showed a marked increase after 1990 in all regions (except for North European males) but especially in West Europe, where they reached 40 per 1000/year around 2005. APC models supported birth cohort effects in the youngest cohorts. Smoking initiation is still unacceptably high among European adolescents, and increasing rates among those aged 15 or less deserve attention. Reducing initiation in adolescents is fundamental, since youngsters are particularly vulnerable to nicotine addiction and tobacco adverse effects.
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2.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
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3.
  • Kuiper, I. N., et al. (författare)
  • Agreement in reporting of asthma by parents or offspring - the RHINESSA generation study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bmc Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2466. ; 18:122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Self-report questionnaires are commonly used in epidemiology, but may be susceptible to misclassification, especially if answers are given on behalf of others, e.g. children or parents. The aim was to determine agreement and analyse predictors of disagreement in parents' reports of offspring asthma, and in offspring reports of parents' asthma. Methods: In the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study, 6752 offspring (age range 18-51 years) and their parents (age range 39-66 years) reported their own and each other's asthma status. Agreement between asthma reports from offspring and parents was determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Cohen's kappa. The participants' own answers regarding themselves were defined as the gold standard. To investigate predictors for disagreement logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sex, smoking status, education, comorbidity and severity of asthma. Results: Agreement was good for parental report of offspring early onset asthma (< 10 years, Cohen's kappa 0.72) and moderate for offspring later onset asthma (Cohen's kappa 0.46). Specificity was 0.99 for both, and sensitivity was 0.68 and 0.36, respectively. For offspring report of maternal and paternal asthma the agreement was good (Cohen's kappa 0.69 and 0.68), specificity was 0.96 and 0.97, and sensitivity was 0.72 and 0.68, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was lowest for offspring report of maternal asthma (0.75), and highest for parents' report of early onset asthma in the offspring (0.83). The negative predictive value (NPV) was high for all four groups (0.94-0.97). In multivariate analyses current smokers (OR = 1.46 [95% CI 1.05, 2.02]) and fathers (OR = 1.31 [95% CI 1. 08, 1.59]) were more likely to report offspring asthma incorrectly. Offspring wheeze was associated with reporting parental asthma incorrectly (OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.21, 2.11]), both under- and over reporting. Conclusions: Asthma reports across generations show moderate to good agreement, making information from other generations a useful tool in the absence of direct reports.
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4.
  • Real, Francisco Gomez, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal age at delivery, lung function and asthma in offspring : a population-based survey
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 51:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is limited information about potential impact of maternal age on the respiratory health of offspring. We investigated the association of maternal age at delivery with adult offspring's lung function, respiratory symptoms and asthma, and potential differences according to offspring sex. 10 692 adults from 13 countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) II responded to standardised interviews and provided lung function measurements and serum for IgE measurements at age 25-55 years. In logistic and linear multilevel mixed models we adjusted for participants' characteristics (age, education, centre, number of older siblings) and maternal characteristics (smoking in pregnancy, education) while investigating for differential effects by sex. Maternal age was validated in a subsample using data from the Norwegian birth registry. Increasing maternal age was associated with increasing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (2.33 mL per year, 95% CI 0.34-4.32 mL per year), more consistent in females (p(trend) 0.025) than in males (ptrend 0.14). Asthma (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.92) and respiratory symptoms (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.92) decreased with increasing maternal age (per 5 years) in females, but not in males (p(interaction) 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). The results were consistent across centres and not explained by confounding factors. Maternal ageing was related to higher adult lung function and less asthma/symptoms in females. Biological characteristics in offspring related to maternal ageing are plausible and need further investigation.
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5.
  • Bråbäck, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood asthma and smoking exposures before conception - a three-generational cohort study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. - 0905-6157 .- 1399-3038. ; 29:4, s. 361-368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Some human and animal studies have recently shown that maternal grandmother's smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of asthma in the grandchildren. We have investigated whether sex of the exposed parent and/or grandchild modifies the association between grandmaternal smoking and grandchild asthma.METHODS: We formed a cohort study based on linkage of national registries with prospectively collected data over three generations. Smoking habits in early pregnancy were registered since 1982 and purchases of prescribed medication since 2005. In all, 10329 children born since 2005 had information on maternal and grandmaternal smoking on both sides and were followed from birth up to 6 years of age. Ages when medication was purchased were used to classify the cohort into never, early transient (0-3 years), early persistent (0-3 and 4-6 years) and late-onset (4-6 years) phenotypes of childhood asthma.RESULTS: Maternal grandmother's smoking was associated with an increased odds of early persistent asthma after adjustment for maternal smoking and other confounders (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.51). Grandchild sex did not modify the association. Paternal grandmother's smoking was not associated with any of the asthma phenotypes.CONCLUSION: Maternal but not paternal exposure to nicotine before conception was related to an increased risk of early persistent childhood asthma, but not other asthma phenotypes. Our findings are possibly consistent with a sex specific mode of epigenetic transfer. 
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6.
  • Kuiper, Ingrid N., et al. (författare)
  • Agreement in reporting of asthma by parents or offspring : the RHINESSA generation study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BMC. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Self-report questionnaires are commonly used in epidemiology, but may be susceptible to misclassification, especially if answers are given on behalf of others, e.g. children or parents. The aim was to determine agreement and analyse predictors of disagreement in parents' reports of offspring asthma, and in offspring reports of parents' asthma.Methods: In the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study, 6752 offspring (age range 18-51 years) and their parents (age range 39-66 years) reported their own and each other's asthma status. Agreement between asthma reports from offspring and parents was determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Cohen's kappa. The participants' own answers regarding themselves were defined as the gold standard. To investigate predictors for disagreement logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sex, smoking status, education, comorbidity and severity of asthma.Results: Agreement was good for parental report of offspring early onset asthma (< 10 years, Cohen's kappa 0.72) and moderate for offspring later onset asthma (Cohen's kappa 0.46). Specificity was 0.99 for both, and sensitivity was 0.68 and 0.36, respectively. For offspring report of maternal and paternal asthma the agreement was good (Cohen's kappa 0.69 and 0.68), specificity was 0.96 and 0.97, and sensitivity was 0.72 and 0.68, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was lowest for offspring report of maternal asthma (0.75), and highest for parents' report of early onset asthma in the offspring (0.83). The negative predictive value (NPV) was high for all four groups (0.94-0.97). In multivariate analyses current smokers (OR = 1.46 [95% CI 1.05, 2.02]) and fathers (OR = 1.31 [95% CI 1. 08, 1.59]) were more likely to report offspring asthma incorrectly. Offspring wheeze was associated with reporting parental asthma incorrectly (OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.21, 2.11]), both under- and over reporting.Conclusions: Asthma reports across generations show moderate to good agreement, making information from other generations a useful tool in the absence of direct reports.
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7.
  • Marcon, Alessandro, et al. (författare)
  • Airway responsiveness to methacholine and incidence of COPD : an international prospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:9, s. 825-832
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It has been debated, but not yet established, whether increased airway responsiveness can predict COPD. Recognising this link may help in identifying subjects at risk.Objective: We studied prospectively whether airway responsiveness is associated with the risk of developing COPD.Methods: We pooled data from two multicentre cohort studies that collected data from three time points using similar methods (European Community Respiratory Health Survey and Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults). We classified subjects (median age 37 years, 1st–3rd quartiles: 29–44) by their level of airway responsiveness using quintiles of methacholine dose–response slope at the first examination (1991–1994). Then, we excluded subjects with airflow obstruction at the second examination (1999–2003) and analysed incidence of COPD (postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal) at the third examination (2010–2014) as a function of responsiveness, adjusting for sex, age, education, body mass index, history of asthma, smoking, occupational exposures and indicators of airway calibre.Results: We observed 108 new cases of COPD among 4205 subjects during a median time of 9 years. Compared with the least responsive group (incidence rate 0.6 per 1000/year), adjusted incidence rate ratios for COPD ranged from 1.79 (95% CI 0.52 to 6.13) to 8.91 (95% CI 3.67 to 21.66) for increasing airway responsiveness. Similar dose–response associations were observed between smokers and non-smokers, and stronger associations were found among subjects without a history of asthma or asthma-like symptoms.Conclusions: Our study suggests that increased airway responsiveness is an independent risk factor for COPD. Further research should clarify whether early treatment in patients with high responsiveness can slow down disease progression.
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