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  • Rokling-Andersen, Merethe H, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of long-term exercise and diet intervention on plasma adipokine concentrations.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The American journal of clinical nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 86:5, s. 1293-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In a randomized, controlled, 2 x 2 factorial trial on the effect of long-term changes in diet and exercise, a significant reduction in body weight and fat mass was observed. Alterations in leptin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations were previously reported from this study. OBJECTIVE: We examined the separate and combined effects of a 1-y exercise and diet intervention on several adipokines; adiponectin, interleukin-6 and -8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, hepatocyte growth factor, nerve growth factor, C-reactive protein, and resistin. DESIGN: One hundred eighty-eight men with several risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease were randomly allocated to 4 groups: diet, exercise, combined diet and exercise, and control. RESULTS: Plasma adiponectin concentrations remained unchanged, whereas body mass index and fat mass decreased after dietary changes and an increase in physical activity. In the control group, adiponectin concentrations were reduced. Analyzed according to the factorial design, only diet intervention had a significant (P = 0.03) positive effect on plasma adiponectin relative to control, and this effect was largely explained by changes in fat mass. After adjustment for change in percentage body fat, there were significant positive effects on tumor necrosis factor-alpha in all 3 intervention groups (P = 0.01 for the diet group, 0.03 for the exercise group, and 0.05 for the combined diet and exercise group). Minor changes were observed for the other adipokines. Neither baseline concentrations of nor changes in adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly correlated to the other adipokines, whereas concentrations of and changes in the other adipokines were significantly correlated. CONCLUSION: Diet intervention had a significant positive effect on adiponectin concentrations, which is largely explained by a reduction in fat mass.
  • Shaw, Danielle I, et al. (författare)
  • LIPGENE food-exchange model for alteration of dietary fat quantity and quality in free-living participants from eight European countries
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 101:5, s. 750-759
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Controlled human intervention trials are required to confirm the hypothesis that dietary fat quality may influence insulin action. The aim was to develop a food-exchange model, suitable for use in free-living volunteers, to investigate the effects of four experimental diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high SFA (HSFA); high MUFA (HMUFA) and two low-fat (LF) diets, one supplemented with 1.24 g EPA and DHA/d (LFn-3). A theoretical food-exchange model was developed. The average quantity of exchangeable fat was calculated as the sum of fat provided by added fats (spreads and oils), milk, cheese, biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of UK adults. Most of the exchangeable fat was replaced by specifically designed study foods. Also critical to the model was the use of carbohydrate exchanges to ensure the diets were isoenergetic. Volunteers from eight centres across Europe completed the dietary intervention. Results indicated that compositional targets were largely achieved with significant differences in fat quantity between the high-fat diets (39.9 (sem 0.6) and 38.9 (sem 0.51) percentage energy (%E) from fat for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively) and the low-fat diets (29.6 (sem 0.6) and 29.1 (sem 0.5) %E from fat for the LF and LFn-3 diets respectively) and fat quality (17.5 (sem 0.3) and 10.4 (sem 0.2) %E from SFA and 12.7 (sem 0.3) and 18.7 (sem 0.4) %E MUFA for the HSFA and HMUFA diets respectively). In conclusion, a robust, flexible food-exchange model was developed and implemented successfully in the LIPGENE dietary intervention trial.
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