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  • Barreiro, Karina, et al. (författare)
  • Urinary extracellular vesicles : Assessment of pre-analytical variables and development of a quality control with focus on transcriptomic biomarker research
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles. - : Co-Action Publishing. - 2001-3078. ; 10:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEV) are a topical source of non-invasive biomarkers for health and diseases of the urogenital system. However, several challenges have become evident in the standardization of uEV pipelines from collection of urine to biomarker analysis. Here, we studied the effect of pre-analytical variables and developed means of quality control for uEV isolates to be used in transcriptomic biomarker research. We included urine samples from healthy controls and individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and normo-, micro- or macroalbuminuria and isolated uEV by ultracentrifugation. We studied the effect of storage temperature (-20°C vs. -80°C), time (up to 4 years) and storage format (urine or isolated uEV) on quality of uEV by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, Western blotting and qPCR. Urinary EV RNA was compared in terms of quantity, quality, and by mRNA or miRNA sequencing. To study the stability of miRNA levels in samples isolated by different methods, we created and tested a list of miRNAs commonly enriched in uEV isolates. uEV and their transcriptome were preserved in urine or as isolated uEV even after long-term storage at -80°C. However, storage at -20°C degraded particularly the GC-rich part of the transcriptome and EV protein markers. Transcriptome was preserved in RNA samples extracted with and without DNAse, but read distributions still showed some differences in e.g. intergenic and intronic reads. MiRNAs commonly enriched in uEV isolates were stable and concordant between different EV isolation methods. Analysis of never frozen uEV helped to identify surface characteristics of particles by EM. In addition to uEV, qPCR assays demonstrated that uEV isolates commonly contained polyoma viruses. Based on our results, we present recommendations how to store and handle uEV isolates for transcriptomics studies that may help to expedite standardization of the EV biomarker field.
  • Mansour Aly, Dina, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analyses highlight etiological differences underlying newly defined subtypes of diabetes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 53, s. 1534-1542
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Type 2 diabetes has been reproducibly clustered into five subtypes with different disease progression and risk of complications; however, etiological differences are unknown. We used genome-wide association and genetic risk score (GRS) analysis to compare the underlying genetic drivers. Individuals from the Swedish ANDIS (All New Diabetics In Scania) study were compared to individuals without diabetes; the Finnish DIREVA (Diabetes register in Vasa) and Botnia studies were used for replication. We show that subtypes differ with regard to family history of diabetes and association with GRS for diabetes-related traits. The severe insulin-resistant subtype was uniquely associated with GRS for fasting insulin but not with variants in the TCF7L2 locus or GRS reflecting insulin secretion. Further, an SNP (rs10824307) near LRMDA was uniquely associated with mild obesity-related diabetes. Therefore, we conclude that the subtypes have partially distinct genetic backgrounds indicating etiological differences.
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