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1.
  • Actis, M., et al. (författare)
  • Design concepts for the Cherenkov Telescope Array CTA : an advanced facility for ground-based high-energy gamma-ray astronomy
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - : Springer. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 32:3, s. 193-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has had a major breakthrough with the impressive results obtained using systems of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has a huge potential in astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. CTA is an international initiative to build the next generation instrument, with a factor of 5-10 improvement in sensitivity in the 100 GeV-10 TeV range and the extension to energies well below 100 GeV and above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the north, one in the south) for full sky coverage and will be operated as open observatory. The design of CTA is based on currently available technology. This document reports on the status and presents the major design concepts of CTA.
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2.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • A new SNR with TeV shell-type morphology : HESS J1731-347
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 531, s. A81-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. The recent discovery of the radio shell-type supernova remnant (SNR), G353.6-0.7, in spatial coincidence with the unidentified TeV source HESS J1731-347 has motivated further observations of the source with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) Cherenkov telescope array to test a possible association of the gamma-ray emission with the SNR. Methods. With a total of 59 h of observation, representing about four times the initial exposure available in the discovery paper of HESS J1731-347, the gamma-ray morphology is investigated and compared with the radio morphology. An estimate of the distance is derived by comparing the interstellar absorption derived from X-rays and the one obtained from (12)CO and HI observations. Results. The deeper gamma-ray observation of the source has revealed a large shell-type structure with similar position and extension (r similar to 0.25 degrees) as the radio SNR, thus confirming their association. By accounting for the HESS angular resolution and projection effects within a simple shell model, the radial profile is compatible with a thin, spatially unresolved, rim. Together with RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622 and SN 1006, HESS J1731-347 is now the fourth SNR with a significant shell morphology at TeV energies. The derived lower limit on the distance of the SNR of 3.2 kpc is used together with radio and X-ray data to discuss the possible origin of the gamma-ray emission, either via inverse Compton scattering of electrons or the decay of neutral pions resulting from proton-proton interaction.
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3.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of the source HESS J1356-645 associated with the young and energetic PSR J1357-6429
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 533, s. A103-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Several newly discovered very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray sources in the Galaxy are thought to be associated with energetic pulsars. Among them, middle-aged (greater than or similar to 10(4) yr) systems exhibit large centre-filled VHE nebulae, offset from the pulsar position, which result from the complex relationship between the pulsar wind and the surrounding medium, and reflect the past evolution of the pulsar. Aims. Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) have been successful in revealing extended emission from these sources in the VHE regime. Together with radio and X-ray observations, this observational window allows one to probe the energetics and magnetic field inside these large-scale nebulae. Methods. H.E.S.S., with its large field of view, angular resolution of less than or similar to 0.1 degrees and unprecedented sensitivity, has been used to discover a large population of such VHE sources. In this paper, the H. E. S. S. data from the continuation of the Galactic Plane Survey (-80 degrees < l < 60 degrees, vertical bar b vertical bar < 3 degrees), together with the existing multi-wavelength observations, are used. Results. A new VHE gamma-ray source was discovered at RA (J2000) = 13(h)56(m)00(s), Dec (J2000) = -64 degrees 30'00 '' with a 2' statistical error in each coordinate, namely HESS J1356-645. The source is extended, with an intrinsic Gaussian width of (0.20 +/- 0.02)degrees. Its integrated energy flux between 1 and 10 TeV of 8 x 10(-12) erg cm(-2) s(-1) represents similar to 11% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy band. The energy spectrum between 1 and 20 TeV is well described by a power law dN/dE proportional to E-Gamma with photon index Gamma = 2.2 +/- 0.2(stat) +/- 0.2(sys). The inspection of archival radio images at three frequencies and the analysis of X-ray data from ROSAT/PSPC and XMM-Newton/MOS reveal the presence of faint non-thermal diffuse emission coincident with HESS J1356-645. Conclusions. HESS J1356-645 is most likely associated with the young and energetic pulsar PSR J1357-6429 (d = 2.4 kpc, tau(c) = 7.3 kyr and (E) over dot = 3.1 x 10(36) erg s(-1)), located at a projected distance of similar to 5 pc from the centroid of the VHE emission. HESS J1356-645 and its radio and X-ray counterparts would thus represent the nebula resulting from the past history of the PSR J1357-6429 wind. In a simple one-zone model, constraints on the magnetic field strength in the nebula are obtained from the flux of the faint and extended X-ray emission detected with ROSAT and XMM-Newton. Fermi-LAT upper limits in the high-energy ( HE; 0.1-100 GeV) domain are also used to constrain the parent electron spectrum. From the low magnetic field value inferred from this approach (similar to 3-4 mu G), HESS J1356-645 is thought to share many similarities with other known gamma-ray emitting nebulae, such as Vela X, as it exhibits a large-scale nebula seen in radio, X-rays and VHE gamma-rays.
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4.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign on PKS 2005-489 in a high state
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 533, s. A110-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 was the target of a multi-wavelength campaign with simultaneous observations in the TeV gamma-ray (H.E.S.S.), GeV gamma-ray (Fermi/LAT), X-ray (RXTE, Swift), UV (Swift) and optical (ATOM, Swift) bands. This campaign was carried out during a high flux state in the synchrotron regime. The flux in the optical and X-ray bands reached the level of the historical maxima. The hard GeV spectrum observed with Fermi/LAT connects well to the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) spectrum measured with H.E.S.S. with a peak energy between similar to 5 and 500 GeV. Compared to observations with contemporaneous coverage in the VHE and X-ray bands in 2004, the X-ray flux was similar to 50 times higher during the 2009 campaign while the TeV gamma-ray flux shows marginal variation over the years. The spectral energy distribution during this multi-wavelength campaign was fit by a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a well determined cutoff in X-rays. The parameters of a one zone SSC model are inconsistent with variability time scales. The variability behaviour over years with the large changes in synchrotron emission and small changes in the inverse Compton emission does not warrant an interpretation within a one-zone SSC model despite an apparently satisfying fit to the broadband data in 2009.
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5.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the direction of the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 531, s. L18-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The HESS very-high-energy (VHE, E > 0.1 TeV) gamma-ray telescope system has discovered a new source, HESS J1747-248. The measured integral flux is (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1) above 440 GeV for a power-law photon spectral index of 2.5 +/- 0.3(stat) +/- 0.2(sys). The VHE gamma-ray source is located in the close vicinity of the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5 and extends beyond the HESS point spread function (0.07 degrees). The probability of a chance coincidence with Terzan 5 and an unrelated VHE source is quite low (similar to 10(-4)). With the largest population of identified millisecond pulsars (msPSRs), a very high core stellar density and the brightest GeV range flux as measured by Fermi-LAT, Terzan 5 stands out among Galactic globular clusters. The properties of the VHE source are briefly discussed in the context of potential emission mechanisms, notably in relation to msPSRs. Interpretation of the available data accommodates several possible origins for this VHE gamma-ray source, although none of them offers a satisfying explanation of its peculiar morphology.
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6.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • HESS J1943+213 : a candidate extreme BL Lacertae object
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 529, s. A49-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The H. E. S. S. Cherenkov telescope array has been surveying the Galactic plane for new VHE (>100 GeV) gamma-ray sources. Aims. We report on a newly detected point-like source, HESS J1943+213. This source coincides with an unidentified hard X-ray source IGR J19443+2117, which was proposed to have radio and infrared counterparts. Methods. We combine new H. E. S. S., Fermi/LAT and Nancay Radio Telescope observations with pre-existing non-simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of IGR J19443+2117 and discuss the likely source associations as well as the interpretation as an active galactic nucleus, a gamma-ray binary or a pulsar wind nebula. Results. HESS J1943+213 is detected at the significance level of 7.9 sigma (post-trials) at RA(J2000) = 19(h)43(m)55(s) +/- 1(stat)(s) +/- 1(sys)(s), Dec(J2000) = +21 degrees 18'8 '' +/- 17(stat)'' +/- 20(sys)''. The source has a soft spectrum with photon index Gamma = 3.1 +/- 0.3(stat) +/- 0.2(sys) and a flux above 470 GeV of (1.3 +/- 0.2(stat) +/- 0.3(sys)) x 10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1). There is no Fermi/LAT counterpart down to a flux limit of 6 x 10(-9) cm(-2) s(-1) in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range (95% confidence upper limit calculated for an assumed power-law model with a photon index Gamma = 2.0). The data from radio to VHE gamma-rays do not show any significant variability. Conclusions. The lack of a massive stellar counterpart disfavors the binary hypothesis, while the soft VHE spectrum would be very unusual in case of a pulsar wind nebula. In addition, the distance estimates for Galactic counterparts places them outside of the Milky Way. All available observations favor an interpretation as an extreme, high-frequency peaked BL Lac object with a redshift z > 0.14. This would be the first time a blazar is detected serendipitously from ground-based VHE observations, and the first VHE AGN detected in the Galactic Plane.
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7.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • HESS Observations of the Globular Clusters NGC 6388 and M15 and Search for a Dark Matter Signal
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 735:1, s. 12-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations of the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6388 and M15 were carried out by the High Energy Stereoscopic System array of Cherenkov telescopes for a live time of 27.2 and 15.2 hr, respectively. No gamma-ray signal is found at the nominal target position of NGC 6388 and M15. In the primordial formation scenario, GCs are formed in a dark matter (DM) halo and DM could still be present in the baryon-dominated environment of GCs. This opens the possibility of observing a DM self-annihilation signal. The DM content of the GCs NGC 6388 and M15 is modeled taking into account the astrophysical processes that can be expected to influence the DM distribution during the evolution of the GC: the adiabatic contraction of DM by baryons, the adiabatic growth of a black hole in the DM halo, and the kinetic heating of DM by stars. Ninety-five percent confidence level exclusion limits on the DM particle velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived for these DM halos. In the TeV range, the limits on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross section are derived at the 10(-25) cm(3) s(-1) level and a few 10(-24) cm(3) s(-1) for NGC 6388 and M15, respectively.
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8.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Revisiting the Westerlund 2 field with the HESS telescope array
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 525, s. A46-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. Previous observations with the HESS telescope array revealed the existence of extended very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, HESS J1023-575, coincident with the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2. At the time of discovery, the origin of the observed emission was not unambiguously identified, and follow-up observations have been performed to further investigate the nature of this gamma-ray source. Methods. The Carina region towards the open cluster Westerlund 2 has been re-observed, increasing the total exposure to 45.9 h. The combined dataset includes 33 h of new data and now permits a search for energy-dependent morphology and detailed spectroscopy. Results. A new, hard spectrum VHE gamma-ray source, HESS J1026-582, was discovered with a statistical significance of 7 sigma. It is positionally coincident with the Fermi LAT pulsar PSRJ1028-5819. The positional coincidence and radio/gamma-ray characteristics of the LAT pulsar favors a scenario where the TeV emission originates from a pulsar wind nebula. The nature of HESS J1023-575 is discussed in light of the deep HESS observations and recent multi-wavelength discoveries, including the Fermi LAT pulsar PSRJ1022-5746 and giant molecular clouds in the region. Despite the improved VHE dataset, a clear identification of the object responsible for the VHE emission from HESS J1023-575 is not yet possible, and contribution from the nearby high-energy pulsar and/or the open cluster remains a possibility.
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9.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the vicinity of PSR B1706-44 and G 343.1-2.3 with HESS
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 528, s. A143-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gamma-ray pulsar PSR B1706-44 and the adjacent supernova remnant (SNR) candidate G 343.1-2.3 were observed by H. E. S. S. during a dedicated observation campaign in 2007. As a result of this observation campaign, a new source of very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, H.E.S.S. J1708-443, was detected with a statistical significance of 7 sigma, although no significant point-like emission was detected at the position of the energetic pulsar itself. In this paper, the morphological and spectral analyses of the newly-discovered TeV source are presented. The centroid of H. E. S. S. J1708-443 is considerably offset from the pulsar and located near the apparent center of the SNR, at alpha(J2000) = 17(h)08(m)11(s) +/- 17(s) and delta(J2000) = -44 degrees 20' +/- 4'. The source is found to be significantly more extended than the H. E. S. S. point spread function (similar to 0.1 degrees), with an intrinsic Gaussian width of 0.29 degrees +/- 0.04 degrees. Its integral flux between 1 and 10 TeV is similar to 3.8 x 10(-1)2 ph cm(-2) s(-1), equivalent to 17% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy range. The measured energy spectrum is well-fit by a power law with a relatively hard photon index Gamma = 2.0 +/- 0.1(stat) +/-0.2(sys). Additional multi-wavelength data, including 330 MHz VLA observations, were used to investigate the VHE gamma-ray source's possible associations with the pulsar wind nebula of PSR B1706-44 and/or with the complex radio structure of the partial shell-type SNR G 343.1-2.3.
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10.
  • Abramowski, A., et al. (författare)
  • HESS constraints on dark matter annihilations towards the sculptor and carina dwarf galaxies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - 0927-6505 .- 1873-2852. ; 34:8, s. 608-616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Sculptor and Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxies were observed with the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope array between January 2008 and December 2009. The data sets consist of a total of 11.8 h and 14.811 of high quality data, respectively. No gamma-ray signal was detected at the nominal positions of these galaxies above 220 GeV and 320 GeV, respectively. Upper limits on the gamma-ray fluxes at 95% CL assuming two forms for the spectral energy distribution (a power law shape and one derived from dark matter annihilation) are obtained at the level of 10(-13)-10(-12) cm(-2) s(-1) in the TeV range. Constraints on the velocity weighted dark matter particle annihilation cross section for both Sculptor and Carina dwarf galaxies range from 10(-21) cm(3) s(-1) down to similar to 10(-2)2 cm(3) s(-1) on the dark matter halo model used. Possible enhancements of the gamma-ray flux are studied: the Sommerfeld effect, which is found to exclude some dark matter particle masses, the internal Bremsstrahlung and clumps in the dark-matter halo distributions. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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