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Sökning: WFRF:(Egstrup Kenneth) > (2010-2014)

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2.
  • Bang, Casper N., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of lipid lowering on new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis : The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 163:4, s. 690-696
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Methods Asymptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate AS (n = 1,421) were randomized (1: 1) to double-blind simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg combination or placebo and followed up for a mean of 4.3 years. The primary end point was the time to new-onset AF adjudicated by 12-lead electrocardiogram at a core laboratory reading center. Secondary outcomes were the correlates of new-onset AF with nonfatal nonhemorrhagic stroke and a combined end point of AS-related events. Results During the course of the study, new-onset AF was detected in 85 (6%) patients (14.2/1,000 person-years of follow-up). At baseline, patients who developed AF were, compared with those remaining in sinus rhythm, older and had a higher left ventricular mass index a smaller aortic valve area index. Treatment with simvastatin and ezetimibe was not associated with less new-onset AF (odds ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.57-1.97], P = .717). In contrast, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07 [95% CI 1.05-1.10], P < .001) and left ventricular mass index (HR 1.01 [95% CI 1.01-1.02], P < .001) were independent predictors of new-onset AF. The occurrence of new-onset AF was independently associated with 2-fold higher risk of AS-related outcomes (HR 1.65 [95% CI 1.02-2.66], P = .04) and 4-fold higher risk of nonfatal nonhemorrhagic stroke (HR 4.04 [95% CI 1.18-13.82], P = .03). Conclusions Simvastatin and ezetimibe were not associated with less new-onset AF. Older age and greater left ventricular mass index were independent predictors of AF development. New-onset AF was associated with a worsening of prognosis. (Am Heart J 2012;163:690-6.)
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3.
  • Egstrup, Kenneth, et al. (författare)
  • QT Response after a Test Dose and during Maintenance Therapy with AZD1305 in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions. - 1179-187X. ; 11:3, s. 199-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Objective: AZD1305 is an investigational antiarrhythmic agent that prolongs refractoriness through combined potassium and sodium channel inhibition. This study aimed to explore the utility of a test dose in predicting QT interval corrected according to Fridericia's formula (QTcF) during subsequent maintenance treatment with AZD1305. Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial carried out at multiple hospital cardiac facilities in Denmark, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, and Sweden. Patients with documented atrial fibrillation (AF) but currently in stable sinus rhythm for ≥2 hours and ≤90 days were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomized in a 1 : 1 : 1 ratio to receive AZD1305 extended-release or matching placebo tablets as follows: group A - test dose 250 mg, evening dose 125 mg on day 1, maintenance dose 125 mg twice daily; group B - test dose 500 mg, placebo evening dose, maintenance dose 125 mg twice daily; placebo group - placebo test and maintenance dose. Maintenance dosing was for 9 days. QTcF >550 ms at any time during the in-patient phase or >500 ms after discharge (day 4) were predefined study drug discontinuation criteria. The main outcome measure was the relationship between QTcF following the test dose and during maintenance treatment. Results: Sixty-five patients were randomized (n = 21, 22, and 22 in group A, group B, and the placebo group, respectively). AZD1305 dose-dependently increased QTcF. There was a positive, linear correlation between the change in QTcF during the first 6 hours after the test dose and during the maintenance phase. Three patients, all from group B, discontinued treatment on day 1 due to QTcF >550 ms. All other patients completed the study without events related to QT prolongation. There was a trend for reduced AF recurrence with AZD1305 compared with placebo. Conclusion: In this exploratory study a test dose predicted the QT response during maintenance treatment with AZD1305 and may thus be employed in further studies. [ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00643448].
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4.
  • Gerdts, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of baseline severity of aortic valve stenosis on effect of intensive lipid lowering therapy (from the SEAS study)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0002-9149 .- 1879-1913. ; 106:11, s. 1634-1639
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Retrospective studies have suggested a beneficial effect of lipid-lowering treatment on the progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in milder stages of the disease. In the randomized, placebo-controlled Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, 4.3 years of combined treatment with simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg did not reduce aortic valve events (AVEs), while ischemic cardiovascular events (ICEs) were significantly reduced in the overall study population. However, the impact of baseline AS severity on treatment effect has not been reported. Baseline and outcomes data in 1,763 SEAS patients (mean age 67 years, 39% women) were used. The study population was divided into tertiles of baseline peak aortic jet velocity (tertile 1: <= 2.8 m/s; tertile 2: >2.8 to 3.3 m/s; tertile 3: >3.3 m/s). Treatment effect and interaction were tested in Cox regression analyses. The rates of AVEs and ICEs increased with increasing baseline severity of AS. In Cox regression analyses, higher baseline peak aortic jet velocity predicted higher rates of AVEs and ICEs in all tertiles (all p values <0.05) and in the total study population (p <0.001). Simvastatin-ezetimibe treatment was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in AVEs in any individual tertile. A significant quantitative interaction between the severity of AS and simvastatin-ezetimibe treatment effect was demonstrated for ICEs (p <0.05) but not for AVEs (p = 0.10). In conclusion, the SEAS study results demonstrate a strong relation between baseline the severity of AS and the rate of cardiovascular events but no significant effect of lipid-lowering treatment on AVEs, even in the group with the mildest AS.
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  • Greve, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical implications of electrocardiographic left ventricular strain and hypertrophy in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis the simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 125:2, s. 346-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-The prognostic impact of ECG left ventricular strain and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in asymptomatic aortic stenosis is not well described. Methods and Results-Data were obtained in asymptomatic patients randomized to simvastatin/ezetimibe combination versus placebo in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. Primary end point was the first of myocardial infarction, nonhemorrhagic stroke, heart failure, aortic valve replacement, or cardiovascular death. The predictive value of ECG left ventricular strain (defined as T-wave inversion in leads V(4) through V(6)) and LVH, assessed by Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria (R(V5-6) +/- S(V1) >= 35 mV) and Cornell voltage-duration criteria {[RaVL + S(V3) + (6 mV in women)] x QRS duration >= 2440 mV.ms}, was evaluated by adjustment for other prognostic covariates. A total of 1533 patients were followed for 4.3 +/- 0.8 years (6592 patient-years of follow-up), and 627 cardiovascular events occurred. ECG strain was present in 340 patients (23.6%), with LVH by Sokolow-Lyon voltage in 260 (17.1%) and by Cornell voltage-duration product in 220 (14.6%). In multivariable analyses, ECG left ventricular strain was associated with 3.1-fold higher risk of in-study myocardial infarction (95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.8; P = 0.004). Similarly, ECG LVH by both criteria predicted, compared with no ECG LVH, 5.8-fold higher risk of heart failure (95% confidence interval, 2.0 -16.8), 2.0-fold higher risk of aortic valve replacement (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1; both P = 0.001), and 2.5-fold higher risk of a combined end point of myocardial infarction, heart failure, or cardiovascular death (95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.9; P = 0.008). Conclusions-ECG left ventricular strain and LVH were independently predictive of poor prognosis in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis.
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7.
  • Greve, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation in asymptomatic aortic stenosis: The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 166:1, s. 72-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The frequency and prognostic importance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis (AS) has not been well described. Methods: Clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography were obtained in asymptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate AS and preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function, randomized to simvastatin/ezetimibe combination vs. placebo in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. At inclusion, AF was categorized as episodic or longstanding. Rhythm change was assessed on annual in-study electrocardiograms. Impact of AF on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was determined by adjusting for biomarkers, clinical- and echocardiographic covariates. Results: Mean follow-up was 4.3 +/- 0.8 years (6,721 patient-years of follow-up). At baseline, episodic AF was present in 87 patients (5.6%), longstanding AF in 55 (3.5%) and no AF in 1,421 (90.9%). Incidence of new-onset AF was 1.2%/year; highest in those with impaired LV function. In multivariable analysis, longstanding AF was compared to no AF at baseline, associated with a 4.1-fold higher risk of heart failure (CI 1.2 to 13.8, p = 0.02) and a 4.8-fold higher risk of non-hemorrhagic stroke (CI 1.7 to 13.6, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Rate of AF is moderate in asymptomatic AS. Longstanding but not episodic AF was, independently predictive of increased risk of heart failure and non-hemorrhagic stroke. New-onset AF was associated with cardiac decompensation. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Greve, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • Stroke in Patients With Aortic Stenosis The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis Study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 45:7, s. 1939-1946
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-There are limited data on risk stratification of stroke in aortic stenosis. This study examined predictors of stroke in aortic stenosis, the prognostic implications of stroke, and how aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting influenced the predicted outcomes. Methods-Patients with mild-to-moderate aortic stenosis enrolled in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. Diabetes mellitus, known atherosclerotic disease, and oral anticoagulation were exclusion criteria. Ischemic stroke was the primary end point, and poststroke survival a secondary outcome. Cox models treating AVR as a time-varying covariate were adjusted for atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, hypertension, age >= 75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years and female sex (CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc) scores. Results-One thousand five hundred nine patients were followed for 4.3 +/- 0.8 years (6529 patient-years). Rates of stroke were 5.6 versus 21.8 per 1000 patient-years pre- and post-AVR; 429 (28%) underwent AVR and 139 (9%) died. Atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-6.6), CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score (HR 1.4 per unit; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), diastolic blood pressure (HR, 1.4 per 10 mm Hg; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), and AVR with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.4-7.2, all P <= 0.026) were independently associated with stroke. Incident stroke predicted death (HR, 8.1; 95% CI, 4.7-14.0; P<0.001). Conclusions-In patients with aortic stenosis not prescribed oral anticoagulation, atrial fibrillation, AVR with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score were the major predictors of stroke. Incident stroke was strongly associated with mortality.
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9.
  • Greve, Anders M., et al. (författare)
  • Usefulness of the electrocardiogram in predicting cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic adults with aortic stenosis (from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0002-9149 .- 1879-1913. ; 114:5, s. 751-756
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypertension and coronary heart disease are common in aortic stenosis (AS) and may impair prognosis for similar AS severity. Different changes in the electrocardiogram may be reflective of the separate impacts of AS, hypertension, and coronary heart disease, which could lead to enhanced risk stratification in AS. The aim of this study was therefore to examine if combining prognostically relevant electrocardiographic (ECG) findings improves prediction of cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic AS. All patients with baseline electrocardiograms in the SEAS study were included. The primary end point was cardiovascular death. Backward elimination (p > 0.01) identified heart rate, Q waves, and Cornell voltage-duration product as independently associated with cardiovascular death. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression models were used to evaluate if these 3 ECG variables improved prediction of cardiovascular death. In 1,473 patients followed for a mean of 4.3 years (6,362 patient-years of follow-up), 70 cardiovascular deaths (5%) occurred. In multivariate analysis, heart rate (hazard ratio [FIR] 1.5 per 11.2 minute(-1) [1 SD], 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 1.8), sum of Q-wave amplitude (HR 1.3 per 2.0 nun [1 SD], 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6), and Cornell voltage-duration product (FIR 1.4 per 763 mm x ms [1 SD], 95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) remained independently associated with cardiovascular death. Combining the prognostic information contained in each of the 3 ECG variables improved integrated discrimination for prediction of cardiovascular death by 2.5%, net reclassification by 14.3%, and area under the curve by 0.06 (all p <= 0.04) beyond other important risk factors. ECG findings add incremental predictive information for cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic patients with AS.
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10.
  • Holme, Ingar, et al. (författare)
  • A risk score for predicting mortality in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic stenosis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Heart. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Cardiovascular Society. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 98:5, s. 377-383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Prognostic information for asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS) from prospective studies is scarce and there is no risk score available to assess mortality. Objectives To develop an easily calculable score, from which clinicians could stratify patients into high and lower risk of mortality, using data from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. Method A search for significant prognostic factors (p < 0.01) among SEAS patients was made by a combined judgemental and statistical elimination procedure to derive a set of three factors (age, gender and smoking) that were forced into the model, and four additional factors captured by the data: left-ventricular mass index, bilirubin, heart rate and natural logarithm of C reactive protein. Calibration was done by comparing observed with calculated number of deaths by tenths of calculated risk using coefficients from the simvastatin + ezetimibe group on placebo group patients. Results Discrimination was good with ROC area of 0.76 for all patients. Estimated probabilities of death were categorised into thirds. An optimised split point of estimated 5-year risk was about 15% (close to the upper 14% tertile split point), with risk 4 times as high in the upper compared to the two lower thirds. The SEAS score performed better than another established high risk score developed for other purposes. Conclusion A new seven factor model for risk stratification of patients with mild to moderate asymptomatic AS identified a high risk group for total mortality with good discrimination properties. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 00092677.
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