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Sökning: WFRF:(Ehrlén Johan) > (2005-2009) > (2006)

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2.
  • Herben, T, et al. (författare)
  • Longterm spatial dynamics of Succisa pratensis in a changing rural landscape : linking dynamical modelling with historical maps
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Ecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0022-0477 .- 1365-2745. ; 94:1, s. 131-143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We attempt to explain the current distribution of a long-lived perennial plant, Succisa pratensis, in a rural landscape in southern Sweden by linking its population biology with documented changes in the landscape, using a dynamical, spatially explicit model incorporating population dynamics and spatial spreading of the plant. Changes in the landscape were inferred from historical maps (1850 and 1900) and aerial photographs (1945 and 2001). We tested whether predictions for the current species distribution are affected by assumptions about its early 19th century distribution, to determine whether recent history and current processes are dominant, and how past landscape changes determine current distributions. Initial conditions influence predictions of current distribution, suggesting that the current distribution still partly reflects the distribution of the species in the early 19th century. A period of 150 years is too short for Succisa to have spread extensively if dispersal parameters are given realistic values. Simulations in which present-day land-use patterns were imposed at earlier dates showed that changes in landscape structure over the past 175 years also had a strong effect on the present-day habitat occupancy and population sizes of Succisa. The dominant process for Succisanow is extinction from marginal habitats. It is therefore likely that the (relatively) high present-day occupation patterns are still due to much larger areas having been available in the past rather than to successful dispersal. Although the species has responded to landscape changes, there is little evidence of population sizes reaching equilibrium. Our approach shows that the wealth of landscape information available from historical maps can be linked with data on population biology by means of dynamical models that can make predictions about species dynamics.
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3.
  • Lehtilä, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Habitat change and demography of Primula veris : Identification of management targets
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Conservation Biology. - 0888-8892 .- 1523-1739. ; 20:3, s. 833-843
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the effects of deterministic factors on population viability often are more important than stochasticity, few researchers have dealt with the effect of deterministic habitat changes on plant population demography We assessed population viability for the perennial herb Primula veris L. and identified targets for management based on demographic data from five different habitat types representing different degrees of canopy closure. We conducted replicate studies at the border of the distribution area and in more central parts. Demographic patterns were similar between the two regions. Most study populations had a positive population growth, and only populations in late phases of forest succession showed consistently negative trends. The populations of open habitats had high seedling recruitment, and the populations of early and middle forest succession had high seed production. The importance of survival for population growth rate increased with increasing habitat closure, whereas the importance of growth and reproduction decreased. Results of the elasticity analysis suggested that the best method to manage decreasing late-successional populations is to increase survival of the largest individuals. The life-table response experiment (LTRE) analysis, however, showed that survival of the largest individuals contributed little to differences in population growth rates of different habitats, whereas seed production and growth of small individuals were more important. Moreover, direct perturbation of the performance of the largest stages showed that late-successional populations would not attain positive population growth even if the largest stages had no mortality at all. We conclude that restoration of recruitment is the only possibility for positive population growth in late-successional populations of P. veris, although the elasticities of recruitment transitions are low. Our results also suggest that retrospective demographic methods such as LIRE constitute an important and necessary complement to prospective methods such as elasticities in identifying management targets.
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4.
  • Mildén, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Metapopulation dynamics of a perennial plant, Succisa pratensis, in an agricultural landscape
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Ecological Modelling. - : Elsevier B.V.. - 0304-3800 .- 1872-7026. ; 199:4, s. 464-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most metapopulation models neglect the local dynamics, and systems characterized by slow population turnover, time lags and non-equilibrium, are only rarely examined within a metapopulation context. In this study we used a realistic, spatially explicit, dynamic metapopulation model of a long-lived grassland plant, Succisa pratensis, to examine the relative importance of local population dynamics, and short and long-distance dispersal of seeds. Using both vegetation composition and sowing experiments we identified 94 occupied and 43 unoccupied, but suitable, habitat patches in a 7-km2 landscape. Local population dynamics were studied in permanent plots in five populations. Simulation results showed that the colonization and extinction dynamics of S. pratensis were slow with about one colonization or extinction per year and the time frame for the population system to attain equilibrium in a constant landscape was several thousands of years. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that occasional long-distance dispersal had a large influence on population turnover rates whereas regular short-distance dispersal had little effect. Our model also allowed us to assess how demographic processes affect not only local population growth but also regional dynamics. Fecundity was more important, compared with growth and survival, in a metapopulation context than when considered only within populations. The effect of landscape development was examined through different land-use scenarios and suggested that S. pratensis only very slowly colonizes new habitats that are made available. Our results with S. pratensis in an agricultural landscape show that long-distance dispersal and colonization dynamics play an important role for the regional distribution in long-lived plants but that time lags, and thus the effect of landscape history, are also very important.
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5.
  • Toräng, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Facilitation in an insect pollinated herb with a floral display dimorphism
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 87:8, s. 2113-2117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Population context should influence pollination success and selection on. oral display in animal-pollinated plants because attraction of pollinators depends not only on the characteristics of individual plants, but also on the attractiveness of co-occurring conspecifics. The insect-pollinated herb Primula farinosa is polymorphic for inflorescence height. Natural populations may include both long-scaped plants, which present their flowers well above the soil surface, and short-scaped plants, with their flowers positioned close to the ground. We experimentally tested whether seed production in short-scaped P. farinosa varied with local morph frequency and surrounding vegetation height. In tall vegetation, short-scaped plants in polymorphic populations produced more fruit and tended to produce more seeds than short-scaped plants did in monomorphic populations. In low vegetation, population composition did not significantly affect fruit and seed output of short-scaped plants. The results suggest that long-scaped plants facilitate short-scaped plants in terms of pollinator attraction and that the facilitation effect is contingent on the height of the surrounding vegetation. The documented facilitation should contribute to the maintenance of the scape length polymorphism in ungrazed areas where litter accumulates and vegetation grows tall.
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7.
  • Ågren, Jon, et al. (författare)
  • Selection on floral display in insect-pollinated Primula farinosa : Effects of vegetation height and litter accumulation
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 150:2, s. 225-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Grazing reduces litter thickness and vegetation height and may thereby indirectly affect reproductive success and selection on floral characters in plants with prostrate growth. Reductions in litter thickness and vegetation height should influence both the resource status of plants with leaves positioned close to the ground and the significance of inflorescence height for interactions with pollinators and seed predators. We experimentally examined how simulated grazing of surrounding vegetation affected pollen limitation, fruit predation and fecundity of short-scaped and long-scaped Primula farinosa, which differ markedly in floral display and therefore in expected attractiveness to pollinators. Litter removal and pruning of surrounding vegetation increased fruit and seed production per plant in the year of the treatment and the probability of flowering in the following year. Pollen limitation of fruit and seed production was stronger in the short-scaped morph than in the long-scaped morph, but was not significantly affected by litter removal and simulated grazing of surrounding vegetation. Supplemental hand-pollination reduced seed size in the year of the treatment and flowering probability in the second year, and these effects did not differ among scape morphs or grazing treatments. The results suggest that grazing indirectly favours seed production in P. farinosa, mainly because it increases the resource status of plants that escape damage. Contrary to expectation, there was no strong evidence that litter accumulation and tall vegetation increase the severity of pollen limitation or reduce the relative performance of the short-scaped morph.
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