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Sökning: WFRF:(Ehrlén Johan) > (2005-2009) > (2007)

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  • Arvanitis, Leena, et al. (författare)
  • Butterfly seed predation: effects of landscape characteristics, plant ploidy level and population structure
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549. ; 152:2, s. 275-285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polyploidization has been suggested as one of the most common mechanisms for plant diversification. It is often associated with changes in several morphological, phenological and ecological plant traits, and therefore has the potential to alter insect–plant interactions. Nevertheless, studies evaluating the effect of plant polyploidy on interspecific interactions are still few. We investigated pre-dispersal seed predation by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines in 195 populations of two ploidy levels of the herb Cardamine pratensis (tetraploid ssp. pratensis, 2n = 30 vs. octoploid ssp. paludosa, 2n = 56–64). We asked if differences in incidence and intensity of predation among populations were related to landscape characteristics, plant ploidy level and population structure. The incidence of the seed predator increased with increasing plant population size and decreasing distance to nearest population occupied by A. cardamines. The intensity of predation decreased with increasing plant population size and was not affected by isolation. Probability of attack decreased with increasing shading, and intensity of predation was higher in grazed than in non-grazed habitats. The attack intensity increased with increasing mean flower number of plant population, but was not affected by flowering phenology. Individuals in tetraploid populations suffered on average from higher levels of seed predation, had higher mean flower number, were less shaded and occurred more often in grazed habitats than octoploid populations. When accounting for differences in habitat preferences between ploidy levels there was no longer a difference in intensity of predation, suggesting that the observed differences in attack rates among populations of the two ploidy levels are mediated by the habitat. Overall, our results suggest that polyploidization is associated with differentiation in habitat preferences and phenotypic traits leading to differences in interspecific interaction among plant populations. This, in turn, may facilitate further divergence of ploidy levels.
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  • Arvanitis, Leena, 1959- (författare)
  • Plant polyploidy and interactions with insect herbivores
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Polyploidization has been suggested to be a common mechanism for plant speciation. Polyploidy is associated with changes in plant traits and altered habitat preference. Antagonistic and mutualistic animals are known to discriminate between plants based on variation in such plant traits, suggesting that interactions may have an important role in divergence of plant polyploids after the polyploidization. In this thesis, I investigated the effect of insect herbivores on divergence of plant polyploids in a system consisting of the predispersal seed predator butterfly Anthocharis cardamines, the bud gall forming midge Dasineura cardaminis, and tetraploids and octoploids of the herb Cardamine pratensis. Octoploid populations occurred more often in shaded and nongrazed habitats than tetraploids. Octoploid plants were larger and had fewer but larger flowers than tetraploids. Butterfly attack rates were higher in tetraploid than in octoploid populations, whereas the gall midge attacked only octoploids. These differences were associated with higher abundance of butterflies in sunny habitats and gall midges in shaded habitats. In contrast to the pattern at the population level, octoploid flower shoots were more likely to be attacked by the butterfly in sympatric populations. Also trait selection differed between ploidy levels, both in the absence and in the presence of herbivores. In a field experiment, butterfly preference did not alter the trait selection in tetraploids. In octoploids, the two herbivores did not change selection considered separately. However, their joint effect resulted in significant selection for smaller flower shoots and reduced selection on number of flowers. This thesis demonstrates that differences in habitat preference and phenotypic plant traits between polyploid cytotypes can lead to altered interactions with herbivores. Such differences in interactions with animals may alter not only the relative fitness of cytotypes but also trait selection within the respective ploidy type.
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  • Sandring, Saskia, 1974- (författare)
  • Plant-Animal Interactions and Evolution of Floral Display and Flowering Phenology in Arabidopsis lyrata
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis, I combined comparative and experimental approaches to examine selection on reproductive traits, and population differentiation in the insect-pollinated, outcrossing, perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata. More specifically, I (1) determined whether selection on flowering phenology and floral display can be attributed to interactions with pollinators and herbivores, (2) examined whether population differentiation in flowering phenology and floral display is correlated with current selection on these traits, and (3) tested for local adaptation from contrasting environments in Europe.A field experiment conducted in a Swedish population demonstrated, that interactions with pollinators may markedly affect selection on both floral display and phenology of flowering. In an alpine population in Norway, grazing damage to inflorescences strongly influenced selection on floral display. The results suggest that variation in the abundance of pollinators and herbivores should contribute to spatio-temporal variation in selection on flowering phenology and floral display in A. lyrata. A common-garden experiment showed that flowering phenology and floral display vary among Scandinavian populations of A. lyrata. For some traits patterns of population differentiation were consistent with differences in the direction and strength of phenotypic selection determined in comparisons (a) between an alpine population in Norway and a coastal population in Sweden, and (b) among coastal populations in Sweden. This suggests that current selection contributes to the maintenance of genetic differentiation in these traits.Adaptive differentiation among populations was examined in a reciprocal transplant experiment that included populations from three contrasting environments, alpine Norway, coastal Sweden and lowland, continental Germany. The experiment provided evidence for local adaptation, and indicated that populations have diverged in traits affecting plant establishment and early growth.
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  • Toräng, Per, 1978- (författare)
  • Pollinators, Enemies, Drought, and the Evolution of Reproductive Traits in Primula farinosa
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis, I combined comparative and experimental approaches to examine selection on reproductive traits and population differentiation in the insect-pollinated, self-incompatible, perennial herb Primula farinosa. More specifically, I (1) determined whether the effects of floral display and interactions with pollinators and seed predators, and plant reproductive success were frequency-dependent and affected by surrounding vegetation context, (2) examined the consequences of intermittent drought years on population dynamics using numerical simulations based on demographic data collected over seven years, (3) analyzed among-population differentiation in flowering phenology and reproductive allocation, and its relationship to soil-depth at the site of origin.A field experiment suggested that conspicuous plants facilitate inconspicuous plants in terms of pollinator attraction, and that the facilitation effect is contingent on the height of the surrounding vegetation. Further experiments revealed that both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions can result in frequency-dependent selection on floral display. Among inconspicuous plants, both fruit initiation, and damage from seed predators increased with the proportion of the conspicuous morph. The relative strength of these effects, and therefore their net outcome on the relationship between morph ratio and seed production varied among years.I combined information on vital rates and their relation to environmental conditions in simulations to predict future population viability in changing environments. Simulated stochastic population growth rate decreased with increasing frequency of drought years.Reproductive allocation varied significantly among populations both in the field and in a common-garden experiment, but was correlated with soil depth at the site of origin only in the field. The results suggest that among-population variation in reproductive effort in the field mainly reflects plastic responses to environmental conditions, and that this plasticity may be adaptive. The common-garden experiment suggested that the study populations have diverged genetically in flowering time.
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  • von Zeipel, Hugo, 1973- (författare)
  • The spatial and temporal dynamics of plant-animal interactions in the forest herb Actaea spicata
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Landscape effects on species performance currently receives much attention. Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered major threats to species diversity. Deciduous forests in southern Sweden are previous wooded pastures that have become species-rich communities appearing as islands in agricultural landscapes, varying in species composition. Actaea spicata is a long-lived plant occurring in these forests. In 150 populations in a 10-km2 area, I studied pre-dispersal seed predation, seed dispersal and pollination. I investigated spatio-temporal dynamics of a tritrophic system including Actaea, a specialist seed predator, Eupithecia immundata, and its parasitoids. In addition, effects of biotic context on rodent fruit dispersal and effects of flowering time and flower number on seed set, seed predation and parasitization were studied. Insect incidences of both trophic levels were related to resource population size and small Eupithecia populations were maintained by the rescue effect. There was a unimodal relationship between seed predation and plant population size. Seed predator populations frequently went extinct in small plant populations, resulting in low average seed predation. Parasitoids were present in large plant populations but did not affect seed predator density. Seed predators aggregated at edges, relaxing seed predation in patch interiors. Flowering phenology was unrelated to seed set and insect incidence. A higher flower number did not influence seed predation but was associated with higher seed set and a tendency for a higher parasitization rate. In the study on fruit dispersal more fruits were removed inside than outside populations. Within plant populations more fruits were removed from large aggregations. Overall, this thesis underlines the importance of plant-animal interactions during different phases of the life cycle. The spatial configuration of host plants plays an important role for the outcome of plant-animal interactions and trophic cascades.
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