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Sökning: WFRF:(Ehrlén Johan) > (2010-2014) > (2014)

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1.
  • Dahlberg, C. Johan, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Performance of Forest Bryophytes with Different Geographical Distributions Transplanted across a Topographically Heterogeneous Landscape
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most species distribution models assume a close link between climatic conditions and species distributions. Yet, we know little about the link between species’ geographical distributions and the sensitivity of performance to local environmental factors. We studied the performance of three bryophyte species transplanted at south- and north-facing slopes in a boreal forest landscape in Sweden. At the same sites, we measured both air and ground temperature. We hypothesized that the two southerly distributed species Eurhynchium angustirete and Herzogiella seligeri perform better on south-facing slopes and in warm conditions, and that the northerly distributed species Barbilophozia lycopodioides perform better on north-facing slopes and in relatively cool conditions. The northern, but not the two southern species, showed the predicted relationship with slope aspect. However, the performance of one of the two southern species was still enhanced by warm temperatures. An important reason for the inconsistent results can be that microclimatic gradients across landscapes are complex and influenced by many climate-forcing factors. Therefore, comparing only north- and south-facing slopes might not capture the complexity of microclimatic gradients. Population growth rates and potential distributions are the integrated results of all vital rates. Still, the study of selected vital rates constitutes an important first step to understand the relationship between population growth rates and geographical distributions and is essential to better predict how climate change influences species distributions.
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2.
  • Dahlgren, Johan P., et al. (författare)
  • Local environment and density-dependent feedbacks determine population growth in a forest herb
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 176:4, s. 1023-1032
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Linking spatial variation in environmental factors to variation in demographic rates is essential for a mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations. However, we still know relatively little about such links, partly because feedbacks via intraspecific density make them difficult to observe in natural populations. We conducted a detailed field study and investigated simultaneous effects of environmental factors and the intraspecific density of individuals on the demography of the herb Lathyrus vernus. In regression models of vital rates we identified effects associated with spring shade on survival and growth, while density was negatively correlated with these vital rates. Density was also negatively correlated with average individual size in the study plots, which is consistent with self-thinning. In addition, average plant sizes were larger than predicted by density in plots that were less shaded by the tree canopy, indicating an environmentally determined carrying capacity. A size-structured integral projection model based on the vital rate regressions revealed that the identified effects of shade and density were strong enough to produce differences in stable population sizes similar to those observed in the field. The results illustrate how the local environment can determine dynamics of populations and that intraspecific density may have to be more carefully considered in studies of plant demography and population viability analyses of threatened species. We conclude that demographic approaches incorporating information about both density and key environmental factors are powerful tools for understanding the processes that interact to determine population dynamics and abundances.
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3.
  • Jones, Owen R., et al. (författare)
  • Diversity of ageing across the tree of life
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 505:7482, s. 169-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evolution drives, and is driven by, demography. A genotype moulds its phenotype's age patterns of mortality and fertility in an environment; these two patterns in turn determine the genotype's fitness in that environment. Hence, to understand the evolution of ageing, age patterns of mortality and reproduction need to be compared for species across the tree of life. However, few studies have done so and only for a limited range of taxa. Here we contrast standardized patterns over age for 11 mammals, 12 other vertebrates, 10 invertebrates, 12 vascular plants and a green alga. Although it has been predicted that evolution should inevitably lead to increasing mortality and declining fertility with age after maturity, there is great variation among these species, including increasing, constant, decreasing, humped and bowed trajectories for both long-and short-lived species. This diversity challenges theoreticians to develop broader perspectives on the evolution of ageing and empiricists to study the demography of more species.
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4.
  • van der Meer, Sascha, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effects of abandonment on the demography of the grassland perennial Succisa pratensis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Population Ecology. - 1438-3896 .- 1438-390X. ; 56:1, s. 151-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abandonment of traditional land-use practices can have strong effects on the abundance of species occurring in agricultural landscapes. However, the precise mechanisms by which individual performance and population dynamics are affected are still poorly understood. To assess how abandonment affects population dynamics of Succisa pratensis we used data from a 4-year field study in both abandoned and traditionally grazed areas in moist and mesic habitats to parameterize integral projection models. Abandoned populations had a lower long-term stochastic population growth rate (lambda (S) = 0.90) than traditionally managed populations (lambda (S) = 1.08), while lambda (S) did not differ between habitat types. The effect of abandonment differed significantly between years and had opposed effects on different vital rates. Individuals in abandoned populations experienced higher mortality rates and lower seedling establishment, but had higher growth rates and produced more flower heads per plant. Population viability analyses, based on a population survey of the whole study area in combination with our demographic models, showed that 32 % of the populations face a high risk of extinction (> 80 %) within 20 years. These results suggest that immediate changes in management are needed to avoid extinctions and further declines in population sizes. Stochastic elasticity analyses and stochastic life table response experiments indicated that management strategies would be most effective if they increase survival of small plants as well as seedling establishment, while maintaining a high seed production. This may be achieved by varying the grazing intensity between years or excluding grazers when plants are flowering.
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5.
  • Bisang, Irene, et al. (författare)
  • Family affiliation, sexratio and sporophyte frequency in unisexual mosses
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Botanical journal of the Linnean Society. - 0024-4074 .- 1095-8339. ; 174, s. 163-172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patterns of sex expression and sex ratios are key features of the life histories of organisms. Bryophytes are the only haploid-dominant land plants. In contrast with seed plants, more than half of bryophyte species are dioecious, with rare sexual expression and sporophyte formation and a commonly female-biased sex ratio. We asked whether variation in sex expression, sex ratio and sporophyte frequency in ten dioecious pleurocarpous wetland mosses of two different families was best explained by assuming that character states  evolved: (1) in ancestors within the respective families or (2) at the species level as a response to recent habitat conditions. Lasso regression shrinkage identified relationships between family membership and sex ratio and sporophyte frequency, whereas environmental conditions were not correlated with any investigated reproductive trait. Sex ratio and sporophyte frequency were correlated with each other. Our results suggest that ancestry is more important than the current environment in explaining reproductive patterns at and above the species level in the studied wetland mosses, and that mechanisms controlling sex ratio and sporophyte frequency are phylogenetically conserved. Obviously, ancestry should be considered in the study of reproductive character state variation in plants.
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6.
  • König, Malin A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Among-Population Variation in Tolerance to Larval Herbivory by Anthocharis cardamines in the Polyploid Herb Cardamine pratensis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:6, s. e99333-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plants have two principal defense mechanisms to decrease fitness losses to herbivory: tolerance, the ability to compensate fitness after damage, and resistance, the ability to avoid damage. Variation in intensity of herbivory among populations should result in variation in plant defense levels if tolerance and resistance are associated with costs. Yet little is known about how levels of tolerance are related to resistance and attack intensity in the field, and about the costs of tolerance. In this study, we used information about tolerance and resistance against larval herbivory by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines under controlled conditions together with information about damage in the field for a large set of populations of the perennial plant Cardamine pratensis. Plant tolerance was estimated in a common garden experiment where plants were subjected to a combination of larval herbivory and clipping. We found no evidence of that the proportion of damage that was caused by larval feeding vs. clipping influenced plant responses. Damage treatments had a negative effect on the three measured fitness components and also resulted in an earlier flowering in the year after the attack. Tolerance was related to attack intensity in the population of origin, i.e. plants from populations with higher attack intensity were more likely to flower in the year following damage. However, we found no evidence of a relationship between tolerance and resistance. These results indicate that herbivory drives the evolution for increased tolerance, and that changes in tolerance are not linked to changes in resistance. We suggest that the simultaneous study of tolerance, attack intensity in the field and resistance constitutes a powerful tool to understand how plant strategies to avoid negative effects of herbivore damage evolve.
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7.
  • König, Malin A. E., 1987- (författare)
  • Context dependency of plant – animal interactions
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The strength and direction of interactions between organisms vary spatially across the landscape. Traditionally, the focus has been on how trait variation affects the interactions between species. However, differences in abiotic and biotic environmental factors may also alter the distribution, phenology and behavior of the interacting species. To be able to understand why an interaction varies across the landscape, the effects of trait variation has to be separated from the effects of the environmental context. In this thesis, I try to separate the effects of context and trait differences on plant resistance against herbivory, through experimental and observational studies conducted with two cytotypes of the perennial herb Cardamine pratensis and its main herbivore, Anthocharis cardamines.The results show that differences in plant resistance against oviposition under controlled conditions were mainly mediated by flower size; larger flowers were more attractive to the female butterfly. However, among-populations differences in oviposition under natural conditions were not related to the resistance observed under controlled conditions, or to ploidy type, flowering phenology or plant size. Within populations under natural conditions the oviposition patterns by A. cardamines was affected by the plant traits plant size and flowering phenology.The result of this thesis shows that among-population differences in intensity of plant-herbivore interactions were caused by differences in environmental context rather than by herbivore preferences for any phenotypic plant traits, while host plant selection within population was based on plant traits. This suggests that biotic and biotic context can have important effects on the intensity of plant-herbivore interactions. Although genetic traits influenced the outcome of the interaction within populations, it was the environmental context of the populations that determined largely if the interaction took place or not.
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8.
  • König, Malin A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Context-dependent resistance against butterfly herbivory in a polyploid herb
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 174:4, s. 1265-1272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spatial variation in biotic interactions and natural selection are fundamental parts of natural systems, and can be driven by differences in both trait distributions and the local environmental context of the interaction. Most studies of plant–animal interactions have been performed only in natural settings, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of traits and context. To assess the relative importance of trait differences and environmental context for among-population variation in plant resistance to herbivory, we compared oviposition by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines on two ploidy types of the herb Cardamine pratensis under experimentally controlled conditions with oviposition in natural populations. Under controlled conditions, plants from octoploid populations were significantly more preferred than plants from tetraploid populations. This difference was largely mediated by differences in flower size. Among natural populations, there was no difference in oviposition rates between the two ploidy types. Our results suggest that differences in oviposition rates among populations of the two cytotypes in the field are caused mainly by differences in environmental context, and that the higher attractiveness of octoploids to herbivores observed under common environmental conditions is balanced by the fact that they occur in habitats which harbor lower densities of butterflies. This illustrates that spatial variation in biotic interactions is the net result of differences in trait distributions of the interacting organisms and differences in environmental context, and that variation in both traits and context are important in understanding species interactions.
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9.
  • Lönnell, Niklas, 1969- (författare)
  • Dispersal of bryophytes across landscapes
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dispersal, especially long-distance dispersal, is an important component in many disciplines within biology. Many species are passively dispersed by wind, not least spore-dispersed organisms.In this thesis I investigated the dispersal capacity of bryophytes by studying the colonization patterns from local scales (100 m) to landscape scales (20 km). The dispersal distances were measured from a known source (up to 600 m away) or inferred from a connectivity measure (1–20 km). I introduced acidic clay to measure the colonization rates over one season of a pioneer moss, Discelium nudum (I–III). I also investigated which vascular plants and bryophytes that had colonized limed mires approximately 20–30 years after the first disturbance (IV).Discelium effectively colonized new disturbed substrates over one season. Most spores were deposited up to 50 meters from a source but the relationship between local colonization rates and connectivity increased with distance up to 20 km (I–III). Also calcicolous wetland bryophyte species were good colonizers over similar distances, while vascular plants in the same environment colonized less frequently. Common bryophytes that produce spores frequently were more effective colonizers, while no effect of spore size was detected (IV). A mechanistic model that take into account meteorological parameters to simulate the trajectories for spores of Discelium nudum fitted rather well to the observed colonization pattern, especially if spore release thresholds in wind variation and humidity were accounted for (III).This thesis conclude that bryophytes in open habitats can disperse effectively across landscapes given that the regional spore source is large enough (i.e. are common in the region and produce spores abundantly). For spore-dispersed organisms in open landscapes I suggest that it is often the colonization phase and not the transport that is the main bottle-neck for maintaining populations across landscapes.
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10.
  • Madec, Camille (författare)
  • Genetic Variation and Evolution of Floral Display in Primula farinosa
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis, I combine molecular analyses, common-garden and field experiments to examine how evolutionary and ecological processes influence patterns of genetic variation among and within populations of the declining, insect-pollinated, self-incompatible, perennial herb Primula farinosa. More specifically I examined 1) whether genetic diversity at neutral marker loci was related to habitat fragmentation and habitat stability, 2) whether floral display and flowering time were more strongly differentiated among populations than were putatively neutral marker loci, 3) whether adaptive population differentiation could be detected on a local spatial scale, and 4) whether floral display differentially affected male and female reproductive success.Genetic diversity at neutral marker loci was lower within fragmented populations on the Swedish mainland than within the more densely occurring populations on the island Öland, SE Sweden. On Öland, fluctuations in population size were more pronounced on thin than on deep soils, but genetic diversity was not related to soil depth. Among-population genetic differentiation in scape length and flowering time was stronger than that of neutral marker loci, which is consistent with divergent selection acting on these traits. Water availability should influence the length of the growing season and thus the time available for fruit maturation, but flowering time in a common-garden experiment was not related to estimates of water availability at sites of origin. In a reciprocal transplant experiment conducted among four populations separated by up to a few kilometres and growing in environment differing in water availability and grazing intensity, no evidence of local adaption was observed. Finally, in a field experiment, interactions with pollinators and antagonists differentially affected selection on floral display through male and female function.Taken together, the results indicate that habitat connectivity and environmental heterogeneity contribute to high neutral and adaptive genetic variation in Primula farinosa on the island Öland, SE Sweden, and illustrate that effects on both male and female reproductive success need to be considered to understand fully the evolution of floral display.
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