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Sökning: WFRF:(Englund Elisabet) > (2015-2019)

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21.
  • Javanshiri, Keivan, et al. (författare)
  • Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Diabetes in Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular Dementia, and Mixed Dementia : Prevalence and Presentation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877. ; 65:4, s. 1247-1258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia with vascular dementia (VaD) being second alongside with mixed AD and VaD, according to some. For some time, it has been proposed that cardiovascular disease (CaVD), hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM), which are known risk factors for VaD, also are associated with and contribute to the development of AD. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of these proposed general risk factors, and to document presence of CaVD as evidenced from clinical records or from autopsy findings, further to correlate these with the diagnoses AD, VaD and mixed AD-VaD (MD), respectively. Methods: Autopsy reports at the Clinical Department of Pathology in Lund from 1992-2017 were analyzed. All cases with a complete autopsy report and a neuropathologically diagnosed dementia disorder (AD, VaD, or MD) were selected on the condition of a clinical diagnosis of dementia. Clinical data were retrieved through medical records and the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR). A total of 268 subjects were included. Results: In AD, there was less CaVD as significantly less organ/tissue findings (p < 0.05), significantly less hypertension (p < 0.001), and likewise significantly less DM (p = 0.0014) than in VaD, with the MD group results being set between these two in all aspects studied. Conclusion: AD and VaD exhibit such different profiles of organ and vascular damage as well as of hypertension and DM that they clearly point toward different pathogenic origin with low likelihood of shared risk factors.
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22.
  • Javanshiri, Keivan, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, and Hypertension in Lewy Body Disease: A Comparison with Other Dementia Disorders
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877. ; 71:3, s. 851-859
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Research concerning the potential roles of cardiovascular disease (CaVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) as risk factors for Lewy body disease (LBD) is limited. These disorders are, however, established risk factors for vascular dementia (VaD) and have been proposed as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CaVD and DM in LBD and compare the results with previous findings in cases with AD, VaD, and mixed AD-VaD (MD). Methods: Autopsy reports at the Clinical Department of Pathology in Lund from 2001–2018 were analyzed. All cases with a complete neuropathological diagnosis of LBD were selected, not distinguishing between subjects with clinical Parkinson disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, on the condition of a clinical diagnosis of dementia. Clinical data were retrieved through the patients’ medical records and the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) and compared with those of the AD, VaD, and MD cases. Results: In LBD, there was less CaVD, significantly less DM (p = 0.002) and likewise significantly less hypertension (p < 0.001) than in VaD. The results of the LBD group were consistent with the results of the AD group. Conclusion Our findings of a low prevalence of CaVD and CaVD risk factors in LBD and in AD argue against the association between these risk factors and their contribution to the development of neurodegenerative diseases.
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24.
  • Lampinen, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Optimal experimental design for filter exchange imaging: Apparent exchange rate measurements in the healthy brain and in intracranial tumors.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 1522-2594. ; 77:3, s. 1104-1114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Filter exchange imaging (FEXI) is sensitive to the rate of diffusional water exchange, which depends, eg, on the cell membrane permeability. The aim was to optimize and analyze the ability of FEXI to infer differences in the apparent exchange rate (AXR) in the brain between two populations.METHODS: A FEXI protocol was optimized for minimal measurement variance in the AXR. The AXR variance was investigated by test-retest acquisitions in six brain regions in 18 healthy volunteers. Preoperative FEXI data and postoperative microphotos were obtained in six meningiomas and five astrocytomas.RESULTS: Protocol optimization reduced the coefficient of variation of AXR by approximately 40%. Test-retest AXR values were heterogeneous across normal brain regions, from 0.3 ± 0.2 s-1 in the corpus callosum to 1.8 ± 0.3 s-1 in the frontal white matter. According to analysis of statistical power, in all brain regions except one, group differences of 0.3-0.5 s-1 in the AXR can be inferred using 5 to 10 subjects per group. An AXR difference of this magnitude was observed between meningiomas (0.6 ± 0.1 s-1 ) and astrocytomas (1.0 ± 0.3 s-1 ).CONCLUSIONS: With the optimized protocol, FEXI has the ability to infer relevant differences in the AXR between two populations for small group sizes. Magn Reson Med 77:1104-1114, 2017.
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25.
  • Lampinen, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Searching for the neurite density with diffusion MRI : Challenges for biophysical modeling
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1065-9471. ; 40:8, s. 2529-2545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In vivo mapping of the neurite density with diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a high but challenging aim. First, it is unknown whether all neurites exhibit completely anisotropic (“stick-like”) diffusion. Second, the “density” of tissue components may be confounded by non-diffusion properties such as T2 relaxation. Third, the domain of validity for the estimated parameters to serve as indices of neurite density is incompletely explored. We investigated these challenges by acquiring data with “b-tensor encoding” and multiple echo times in brain regions with low orientation coherence and in white matter lesions. Results showed that microscopic anisotropy from b-tensor data is associated with myelinated axons but not with dendrites. Furthermore, b-tensor data together with data acquired for multiple echo times showed that unbiased density estimates in white matter lesions require data-driven estimates of compartment-specific T2 values. Finally, the “stick” fractions of different biophysical models could generally not serve as neurite density indices across the healthy brain and white matter lesions, where outcomes of comparisons depended on the choice of constraints. In particular, constraining compartment-specific T2 values was ambiguous in the healthy brain and had a large impact on estimated values. In summary, estimating neurite density generally requires accounting for different diffusion and/or T2 properties between axons and dendrites. Constrained “index” parameters could be valid within limited domains that should be delineated by future studies.
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26.
  • Landqvist, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Psychotic symptoms in frontotemporal dementia: a diagnostic dilemma?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Psychogeriatrics. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1741-203X. ; 27:4, s. 531-539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) constitutes a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with degeneration of, predominantly, the frontal and temporal lobes. The clinical heterogeneity is evident, and early diagnosis is a challenge. The primary objectives were to characterize psychotic symptoms, initial clinical diagnoses and family history in neuropathologically verified FTD-patients and to analyze possible correlations with different neuropathological findings. Methods: The medical records of 97 consecutive patients with a neuropathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) were reevaluated. Psychotic symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideas), initial diagnosis and family history for psychiatric disorders were analyzed. Results: Psychotic symptoms were present in 31 patients (32%). There were no significant differences in age at onset, disease duration or gender between patients with and without psychotic symptoms. Paranoid ideas were seen in 20.6%, and hallucinations and delusions in 17.5% in equal measure. Apart from a strong correlation between psychotic symptoms and predominantly right-sided brain degeneration, the majority of patients (77.4%) were tau-negative. Only 14.4% of the patients were initially diagnosed as FTD, while other types of dementia were seen in 34%, other psychiatric disorders in 42%, and 9.2% with other cognitive/neurological disorders. The patients who were initially diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder were significantly younger than the patients with other initial clinical diagnoses. A positive heredity for dementia or other psychiatric disorder was seen in 42% and 26% of the patients respectively. Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms, not covered by current diagnostic criteria, are common and may lead to clinical misdiagnosis in FTD.
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27.
  • LI, WEN, et al. (författare)
  • Extensive graft-derived dopaminergic innervation is maintained 24 years after transplantation in the degenerating parkinsonian brain.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 113:23, s. 6544-6549
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical trials using cells derived from embryonic ventral mesencephalon have shown that transplanted dopaminergic neurons can survive and function in the long term, as demonstrated by in vivo brain imaging using 18F-fluorodopa and 11C-raclopride positron emission tomography. Here we report the postmortem analysis of a patient with Parkinson’s disease who 24 y earlier underwent unilateral transplantation of embryonic dopaminergic neurons in the putamen and subsequently exhibited major motor improvement and recovery of striatal dopaminergic function. Histopathological analysis showed that a dense, near-normal graft-derived dopaminergic reinnervation of the putamen can be maintained for a quarter of a century despite severe host brain pathology and with no evidence of immune response. In addition, ubiquitin- and α-synuclein–positive inclusions were seen, some with the appearance of typical Lewy bodies, in 11–12% of the grafted dopaminergic neurons, reflecting the spread of pathology from the host brain to the transplants. Because the clinical benefits induced by transplantation in this patient were gradually lost after 14 y posttransplantation, our findings provide the first reported evidence, to our knowledge, that even a viable dopaminergic graft giving rise to extensive striatal reinnervation may lose its efficacy if widespread degenerative changes develop in the host brain.
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28.
  • Liljegren, Madeleine, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Neuropathologically Confirmed Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer Disease With Criminal and Socially Inappropriate Behavior in a Swedish Cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Network Open. - : American Medical Association. - 2574-3805.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance Criminal and socially inappropriate behavior is encountered among patients with dementia, and it is sometimes the first sign of a dementing disorder. This behavior constitutes a significant burden to society, patients’ relatives, and patients themselves. Objectives To investigate and compare the prevalence and type of criminal and socially inappropriate behavior, as well as recurrence of criminal behavior, associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) neuropathologically verified post mortem, and to assess whether there is a specific type of protein pathology more closely associated with criminal behavior in patients with FTD. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort study using medical record review of 220 Swedish patients with a postmortem neuropathologic diagnosis of AD (n = 101) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (n = 119) (hereinafter referred to as FTD) diagnosed between January 1, 1967, and December 31, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures Patient notes containing reports of criminal and socially inappropriate behavior, as well as data on dominant protein pathology for patients with FTD, were duly reviewed and recorded. The Fisher exact test or logistic regression was used to assess possible differences between groups. Results Of the 220 patients studied, 128 (58.2%) were female, the median (range) age at disease onset was 63 (30-88) years and at death was 72 (34-96) years, and the median (range) disease duration was 9 (1-28) years. Instances of criminal behavior were found in 65 of the 220 patients (29.5%): in 15 of the 101 patients (14.9%) with AD and 50 of the 119 patients (42.0%) with FTD (P < .001). Recurrence of criminal behavior was significantly higher in the FTD group (89.0%) than in the AD group (53.3%) (P = .04). Instances of socially inappropriate behavior were found in 57 patients (56.4%) with AD and 89 (74.8%) with FTD (P = .004). An expression of non-tau pathology increased the odds for criminal behavior by a factor of 9.0 (95% CI, 3.4-24.0) among patients with FTD. Conclusions and Relevance These results suggest that criminal and socially inappropriate behaviors may be more prevalent and criminal behaviors may be more recurrent in patients with FTD than in those with AD. Non-tau pathology, but not tau pathology, appears to be associated with criminal behavior. These findings may help with the clinical diagnostic process.
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29.
  • Liljegren, Madeleine, et al. (författare)
  • Criminal Behavior in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer Disease.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA Neurology. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6157. ; 72:3, s. 295-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurodegenerative diseases can cause dysfunction of neural structures involved in judgment, executive function, emotional processing, sexual behavior, violence, and self-awareness. Such dysfunctions can lead to antisocial and criminal behavior that appears for the first time in the adult or middle-aged individual or even later in life.
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