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  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • A three-generation study on the association of tobacco smoking with asthma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 47:4, s. 1106-1117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mothers' smoking during pregnancy increases asthma risk in their offspring. There is some evidence that grandmothers' smoking may have a similar effect, and biological plausibility that fathers' smoking during adolescence may influence offspring's health through transmittable epigenetic changes in sperm precursor cells. We evaluated the three-generation associations of tobacco smoking with asthma. Methods: Between 2010 and 2013, at the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III clinical interview, 2233 mothers and 1964 fathers from 26 centres reported whether their offspring (aged <= 51 years) had ever had asthma and whether it had coexisted with nasal allergies or not. Mothers and fathers also provided information on their parents' (grandparents) and their own asthma, education and smoking history. Multilevel mediation models within a multicentre three-generation framework were fitted separately within the maternal (4666 offspring) and paternal (4192 offspring) lines. Results: Fathers' smoking before they were 15 [relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.01] and mothers' smoking during pregnancy (RRR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with asthma without nasal allergies in their offspring. Grandmothers' smoking during pregnancy was associated with asthma in their daughters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.17-2.06] and with asthma with nasal allergies in their grandchildren within the maternal line (RRR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55). Conclusions: Fathers' smoking during early adolescence and grandmothers' and mothers' smoking during pregnancy may independently increase asthma risk in offspring. Thus, risk factors for asthma should be sought in both parents and before conception.
  • Adam, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE : a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 41:5, s. 38-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m(-3) increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (-14.0 mL, 95%CI -25.8- -2.1) and FVC (-14.9 mL, 95% CI -28.7- -1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (-44.6 mL, 95% CI -85.4- -3.8) and FVC (-59.0 mL, 95% CI -112.3- -5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons. This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.
  • Al-Shamkhi, Nasrin, et al. (författare)
  • Important non-disease-related determinants of exhaled nitric oxide levels in mild asthma – results from the Swedish GA2LEN study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 46:9, s. 1185-1193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has a potential clinical role in asthma management. Constitutive factors such as age, height and gender, as well as individual characteristics, such as IgE sensitization and smoking, affect the levels of FeNO in population-based studies. However, their effect on FeNO in subjects with asthma has been scarcely studied. Objective: To study the effects on FeNO of these commonly regarded determinants, as demonstrated in healthy subjects, as well as menarche age and parental smoking, in a population of asthmatics. Material and Methods: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured in 557 subjects with asthma from the Swedish GA2LEN study. Allergic sensitization was assessed by skin prick tests to most common aeroallergens. Upper airway comorbidities, smoking habits, smoking exposure during childhood and hormonal status (for women) were questionnaire-assessed. Results: Male gender (P < 0.001), greater height (P < 0.001) and sensitization to both perennial allergens and pollen (P < 0.001) are related to higher FeNO levels. Current smoking (P < 0.001) and having both parents smoking during childhood, vs. having neither (P < 0.001) or only one parent smoking (P = 0.002), are related to lower FeNO. Women with menarche between 9 and 11 years of age had lower FeNO than those with menarche between 12 and 14 years of age (P = 0.03) or 15 and 17 years of age (P = 0.003). Conclusions and Clinical relevance: Interpreting FeNO levels in clinical practice is complex, and constitutional determinants, as well as smoking and IgE sensitisation, are of importance in asthmatic subjects and should be accounted for when interpreting FeNO levels. Furthermore, menarche age and parental smoking during childhood and their effects on lowering FeNO deserve further studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  • Amaral, A. F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795e9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier, Inc. on behalf ofthe American Academy of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.
  • Andersen, Zorana J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Brain Tumor : the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuro-Oncology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1522-8517 .- 1523-5866. ; 20:3, s. 420-432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5–10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89–3.14 per 10–5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38–2.71 per 10–5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors.Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.
  • Andersen, Zorana J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in 15 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - Research triangle park : US department of health. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 125:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent.OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts – Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m(3)}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m(3)], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m(3)], and NO(2) [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m(3)], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m(3), p=0.04].CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.
  • Andersson, John, et al. (författare)
  • Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia : results from the Betula project
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 166, s. 334-339
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Early life swimming pool exposure and asthma onset in children : a case-control study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - : BioMed Central. - 1476-069X .- 1476-069X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Trichloramine exposure in indoor swimming pools has been suggested to cause asthma in children. We aimed to investigate the risk of asthma onset among children in relation to individual trichloramine exposure.METHODS: A longitudinal nested case-control study of 337 children with asthma (cases) and 633 controls aged 16-17 years was performed within a population-based cohort from The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies (OLIN). Year of asthma onset and exposure time at different ages were obtained in telephone interviews. Trichloramine concentrations in the pool buildings were measured. Skin prick test results for inhalant allergens were available from previous examinations of the cohort. The risk for asthma was analyzed in relation to the cumulative trichloramine exposure before onset of asthma.RESULTS: Swimming pool exposure in early life was associated with a significantly higher risk of pre-school asthma onset. A dose-response relationship between swimming pool exposure and asthma was indicated in children with asthma onset at 1 year of age. Children who were both sensitized and exposed had a particularly high risk.CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure to chlorinated swimming pool environments was associated with pre-school asthma onset.
  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Swimming pool attendance is related to asthma among atopic school children : a population-based study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - 1476-069X .- 1476-069X. ; 14:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: By-products of water disinfectants have been suggested to cause asthma, especially in atopic children. However, studies on indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma in children have presented conflicting results. The present study examined the relationship between indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma among sensitized and non-sensitized children aged 11-12 years.Methods: An extended ISAAC questionnaire was sent to the families of all children attending fifth or sixth grade, aged 11-12 years, in two municipalities in Northern Sweden in 2010. A total of 1866 participated (96% of those invited) in the questionnaire study and 1652 (89%) also participated in skin prick testing for 10 standard airborne allergens. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma in combination with wheeze or use of asthma medication in the last 12 months. Current swimming pool attendance was reported as >= 1/week or <1/week. Logistic regression models were used for data analysis.Results: The prevalence of current asthma was 8.9% (10.0% of boys; 7.9% of girls) and 14% had attended indoor pools >= 1/week. Children currently attending swimming pools >= 1/week had an increased risk of current asthma. Stratified analyses for allergic sensitization adjusted for sex, parental smoking, parental asthma, and damp housing, showed a statistically significant association for current asthma only among sensitized subjects (OR 95% CI 1.90 1.09-3.32). No association was found between current pool attendance and wheeze, sensitization, rhinitis or eczema.Conclusions: The present study supports the proposed link between indoor swimming pool attendance and asthma in sensitized children.
  • Armstrong, Ben, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Humidity in Associations of High Temperature with Mortality : A Multicountry, Multicity Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 127:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is strong experimental evidence that physiologic stress from high temperatures is greater if humidity is higher. However, heat indices developed to allow for this have not consistently predicted mortality better than dry-bulb temperature.Objectives: We aimed to clarify the potential contribution of humidity an addition to temperature in predicting daily mortality in summer by using a large multicountry dataset.Methods: In 445 cities in 24 countries, we fit a time-series regression model for summer mortality with a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) for temperature (up to lag 3) and supplemented this with a range of terms for relative humidity (RH) and its interaction with temperature. City-specific associations were summarized using meta-analytic techniques.Results: Adding a linear term for RH to the temperature term improved fit slightly, with an increase of 23% in RH (the 99th percentile anomaly) associated with a 1.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8, 1.3] decrease in mortality. Allowing curvature in the RH term or adding terms for interaction of RH with temperature did not improve the model fit. The humidity-related decreased risk was made up of a positive coefficient at lag 0 outweighed by negative coefficients at lags of 1–3 d. Key results were broadly robust to small model changes and replacing RH with absolute measures of humidity. Replacing temperature with apparent temperature, a metric combining humidity and temperature, reduced goodness of fit slightly.Discussion:The absence of a positive association of humidity with mortality in summer in this large multinational study is counter to expectations from physiologic studies, though consistent with previous epidemiologic studies finding little evidence for improved prediction by heat indices. The result that there was a small negative average association of humidity with mortality should be interpreted cautiously; the lag structure has unclear interpretation and suggests the need for future work to clarify.
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