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1.
  • Schael, S, et al. (författare)
  • Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - : Elsevier BV. - 0370-1573 .- 1873-6270. ; 427:5-6, s. 257-454
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLID experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m(Z) and Gamma(Z), and its couplings to fermions, for example the p parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m(Z) = 91.1875 +/- 0.0021 GeV, Gamma(Z) = 2.4952 +/- 0.0023 GeV, rho(l) = 1.0050 +/- 0.0010, sin(2)theta(eff)(lept) = 0.23153 +/- 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 +/- 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. Of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its SM expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m(t) = 173(+10)(+13) GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m(W) = 80.363 +/- 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the SM. Using in addition the direct measurements of m(t) and m(W), the mass of the as yet unobserved SM Higgs boson is predicted with a relative uncertainty of about 50% and found to be less than 285 GeV at 95% confidence level. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Villa, Luisa L., et al. (författare)
  • Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 356:19, s. 1915-1927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. A phase 3 trial was conducted to evaluate a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV-6/11/16/18) for the prevention of high-grade cervical lesions associated with HPV-16 and HPV-18. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind trial, we assigned 12,167 women between the ages of 15 and 26 years to receive three doses of either HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine or placebo, administered at day 1, month 2, and month 6. The primary analysis was performed for a per-protocol susceptible population that included 5305 women in the vaccine group and 5260 in the placebo group who had no virologic evidence of infection with HPV-16 or HPV-18 through 1 month after the third dose (month 7). The primary composite end point was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, or cervical cancer related to HPV-16 or HPV-18. RESULTS: Subjects were followed for an average of 3 years after receiving the first dose of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine efficacy for the prevention of the primary composite end point was 98% (95.89% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 100) in the per-protocol susceptible population and 44% (95% CI, 26 to 58) in an intention-to-treat population of all women who had undergone randomization (those with or without previous infection). The estimated vaccine efficacy against all high-grade cervical lesions, regardless of causal HPV type, in this intention-to-treat population was 17% (95% CI, 1 to 31). CONCLUSIONS: In young women who had not been previously infected with HPV-16 or HPV-18, those in the vaccine group had a significantly lower occurrence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia related to HPV-16 or HPV-18 than did those in the placebo group.
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3.
  • Elsik, Christine G., et al. (författare)
  • The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle : A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 324:5926, s. 522-528
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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4.
  • Lindgren, Cecilia M, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association scan meta-analysis identifies three Loci influencing adiposity and fat distribution.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404. ; 5:6, s. e1000508-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9x10(-11)) and MSRA (WC, P = 8.9x10(-9)). A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.6x10(-8)). The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity.
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5.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8627 .- 1554-8635. ; 4:2, s. 151-175
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
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6.
  • Willer, Cristen J., et al. (författare)
  • Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 41:1, s. 25-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts (n > 59,000). We strongly confirm FTO and MC4R and identify six additional loci (P < 5 x 10(-8)): TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2 and NEGR1 (where a 45-kb deletion polymorphism is a candidate causal variant). Several of the likely causal genes are highly expressed or known to act in the central nervous system (CNS), emphasizing, as in rare monogenic forms of obesity, the role of the CNS in predisposition to obesity.
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7.
  • Feldman, E. J., et al. (författare)
  • On the use of lonafarnib in myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Leukemia. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0887-6924 .- 1476-5551. ; 22:9, s. 1707-1711
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lonafarnib is an orally bio-available farnesyltransferase inhibitor that prevents farnesylation of specific target proteins including Ras. In a multicenter study, 67 patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were treated with a continuous oral dose of 200-300 mg of lonafarnib and were evaluated for hematologic, pathologic and pharmacodynamic response. The median age of patients was 70 years (range 44-86). There were 32 patients with MDS (RAEB-20 and RAEB-t-12) and 35 with CMML. Overall 16 (24%) of the patients responded with two patients achieving a complete remission and one a partial response. Responses were seen in 6/32 and 10/35 patients with MDS and CMML, respectively. Of the 19 patients who were platelet transfusion-dependent prior to treatment, 5 (26%) became transfusion-free for a median duration of 185 days. A decrease in the farnesylation of the HDJ-2 protein measured in patient-derived cells was observed in the majority of patients during treatment with lonafarnib, but no clear correlation between changes in farnesylation and clinical effect could be made. Gastrointestinal toxicity was significant with 19% of patients discontinuing therapy due to diarrhea, nausea and/or anorexia. Lonafarnib has demonstrable activity in patients with advanced MDS and CMML.
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8.
  • Zeggini, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 40:5, s. 638-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified multiple loci at which common variants modestly but reproducibly influence risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D)(1-11). Established associations to common and rare variants explain only a small proportion of the heritability of T2D. As previously published analyses had limited power to identify variants with modest effects, we carried out meta-analysis of three T2D GWA scans comprising 10,128 individuals of European descent and similar to 2.2 million SNPs (directly genotyped and imputed), followed by replication testing in an independent sample with an effective sample size of up to 53,975. We detected at least six previously unknown loci with robust evidence for association, including the JAZF1 (P=5.0 x 10(-14)), CDC123-CAMK1D (P=1.2 x 10(-10)), TSPAN8-LGR5 (P=1.1 x 10(-9)), THADA (P=1.1 x 10(-9)), ADAMTS9 (P=1.2 x 10(-8)) and NOTCH2 (P=4.1 x 10(-8)) gene regions. Our results illustrate the value of large discovery and follow-up samples for gaining further insights into the inherited basis of T2D.
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9.
  • McMahon, J J, et al. (författare)
  • CMP compatibility of partially cured benzocyclobutene (BCB) for a via-first 3D IC process
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Chemical-Mechanical Planarization-Integration, Technology and Reliability. - WARRENDALE, PA : MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. - 1558998209 ; , s. 63-68
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wafer-level three dimensional (3D) IC technology offers the promise of decreasing RC delays by reducing long interconnect lines in high performance ICs. This paper focuses on a via-first 3D IC platform, which utilizes a back-end-of-line (BEOL) compatible damascene-patterned layer of copper and Benzocyclobutene (BCB). This damascene-patterned copper/BCB serves as a redistribution layer between two fully fabricated wafer sets of ICs and offers the potential of high bonding strength and low contact resistance for inter-wafer interconnects between the wafer pair. The process would thus combine the electrical advantages of 3D technology using Cu-to-Cu bonding with the mechanical advantages of 3D technology using BCB-to-BCB bonding. In this work, partially cured BCB has been evaluated for copper damascene patterning using commercially available CMP slurries as a key process step for a via-first 3D process flow. BCB is spin-cast on 200 mm wafers and cured at temperatures ranging from 190 degrees C to 250 degrees C, providing a wide range of crosslink percentage. These films are evaluated for CMP removal rate, surface damage (surface scratching and embedded abrasives), and planarity with commercially available copper CMP slurries. Under baseline process parameters, erosion, and roughness changes are presented for single-level damascene test patterns. After wafers are bonded under controlled temperature and pressure, the bonding interface is inspected optically using glass-to-silicon bonded wafers, and the bond strength is evaluated by a razor blade test.
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10.
  • McMahon, J J, et al. (författare)
  • Unit processes for Cu/BCB redistribution layer bonding for 3D ICs
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Advanced Metallization Conference 2005 (AMC 2005). - WARRENDALE : MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY. - 1558998659 ; , s. 179-183
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel via-first, back-end-of-the-line (BEOL) compatible, monolithic wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) interconnect technology platform is presented. This platform employs wafer bonding of damascene-patterned metal/adhesive redistribution layers on two wafers to provide both high density of inter-wafer electrical interconnects and strong adhesive bond of two wafers in a single unit processing step. Two key steps for this approach are 1) fabrication of a metal/adhesive redistribution layer on the BEOLprocessed wafers by damascene patterning and 2) face-to-face alignment and bonding of two wafers utilizing copper/tantalum (Cu/Ta) and benzocyclobutene (BCB) redistribution layers. A baseline process and two modified processes are investigated toward evaluation of 1) acceptable wafer-scale nonplanarity, removal rate, and surface damage after CMP and 2) seamless bonding at all three possible interfaces with sufficiently strong BCB-to-BCB critical adhesion energy and Cu-to-Cu contact resistance. Migration of voids in the sputtered copper during bonding and etch profiles for different etch processes are discussed.
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