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Sökning: WFRF:(Garcia Aymerich Judith) > (2015-2019) > (2018)

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  • Peralta, Gabriela P., et al. (författare)
  • Body mass index trajectories during adult life and lung function decline
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Body mass index (BMI) has been associated with lung function. Whether distinct BMI trajectories during adult life affect lung function differently is unknown. We assessed associations of BMI trajectories from 34 to 54 years with lung function decline over the same period of time in the ECRHS cohort.BMI trajectories were developed using Group-Based Trajectory Modeling on data collected at least twice between ECRHS I and ECRHS III (n=9327). Associations of these trajectories with lung function decline were assessed using mixed linear regression models (adjusted for sex, age, age2, height, smoking status and baseline lung function) in a subgroup (n=3534) with lung function data at ECRHS I and III. As sex-specific analyses showed similar findings, males and females were combined.Four parallel trajectories were identified: ‘normal’, ‘overweight’, ‘obese’ and ‘morbidly obese’ (Fig. 1). Those with higher BMI trajectories had greater decline of FEV1 and FVC than those with ‘normal BMI’ trajectory (Fig. 2).Overweight and obese trajectories of BMI during adult life were associated with greater lung function decline in the ECRHS cohort.
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  • Carsin, Anne-Elie, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and incidence of restrictive spirometry pattern in adults
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: A restrictive spirometry pattern is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Whether regular physical activity (PA) protects against this pattern has never been studied.Objective: To assess if PA is associated with the development of restrictive pattern.Methods: Lung function and PA were assessed in the second and third follow-up of the ECRHS (n=2757, 39-67 years) and SAPALDIA (n=2610, 36-82 y) cohorts. Subjects with restrictive or obstructive pattern at baseline were excluded. We assessed the association of being active at baseline (defined as exercising vigorously >2-3 times/wk for >1 h) and restrictive pattern at follow-up (defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC≥LLN and FVC<80% pred.) using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, smoking and asthma. We explored the impact of adjusting for baseline FVC. Additionally, models were repeated stratified by BMI.Results: After 10 years follow-up, 3.7% and 2.8% of participants developed a restrictive pattern, in ECRHS and SAPALDIA respectively. In both cohorts, being physically active was associated with lower risk of a restrictive pattern (meta-analysed RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47-0.89). This association was stronger in overweight (0.41, 0.23-0.75) and obese (0.42, 0.17-1.05) than in normal weight subjects, but was attenuated when adjusting for baseline FVC (0.77, 0.58-1.04).Conclusion: In two large European studies, adults who reported more PA were at lower risk of developing a restrictive spirometry pattern. Lung function at baseline seemed to explain part of the observed association, stressing the need of adequate method to take into account both horse-racing and regression-to-the-means effects.
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  • Fuertes, Elaine, et al. (författare)
  • Leisure-time vigorous physical activity is associated with better lung function : the prospective ECRHS study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:4, s. 376-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We assessed associations between physical activity and lung function, and its decline, in the prospective population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey cohort. Methods: FEV1 and FVC were measured in 3912 participants at 27-57 years and 39-67 years (mean time between examinations= 11.1 years). Physical activity frequency and duration were assessed using questionnaires and used to identify active individuals (physical activity >= 2 times and >= 1 hour per week) at each examination. Adjusted mixed linear regression models assessed associations of regular physical activity with FEV1 and FVC. Results: Physical activity frequency and duration increased over the study period. In adjusted models, active individuals at the first examination had higher FEV1 (43.6 mL (95% CI 12.0 to 75.1)) and FVC (53.9 mL (95% CI 17.8 to 89.9)) at both examinations than their non-active counterparts. These associations appeared restricted to current smokers. In the whole population, FEV1 and FVC were higher among those who changed from inactive to active during the follow-up (38.0 mL (95% CI 15.8 to 60.3) and 54.2 mL (95% CI 25.1 to 83.3), respectively) and who were consistently active, compared with those consistently non-active. No associations were found for lung function decline. Conclusion: Leisure-time vigorous physical activity was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC over a 10-year period among current smokers, but not with FEV1 and FVC decline.
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  • Fuertes, Elaine, et al. (författare)
  • Residential air pollution does not modify the positive association between physical activity and lung function in current smokers in the ECRHS study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 120, s. 364-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined whether a long-term beneficial effect of physical activity on lung function can be influenced by living in polluted urban areas.OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether annual average residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10) modify the effect of physical activity on lung function among never- (N = 2801) and current (N = 1719) smokers in the multi-center European Community Respiratory Health Survey.METHODS: Associations between repeated assessments (at 27-57 and 39-67 years) of being physically active (physical activity: ≥2 times and ≥1 h per week) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated using adjusted mixed linear regression models. Models were conducted separately for never- and current smokers and stratified by residential long-term NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (≤75th percentile (low/medium) versus >75th percentile (high)).RESULTS: Among current smokers, physical activity and lung function were positively associated regardless of air pollution levels. Among never-smokers, physical activity was associated with lung function in areas with low/medium NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (e.g. mean difference in FVC between active and non-active subjects was 43.0 mL (13.6, 72.5), 49.5 mL (20.1, 78.8) and 49.7 mL (18.6, 80.7), respectively), but these associations were attenuated in high air pollution areas. Only the interaction term of physical activity and PM10 mass for FEV1 among never-smokers was significant (p-value = 0.03).CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity has beneficial effects on adult lung function in current smokers, irrespective of residential air pollution levels in Western Europe. Trends among never-smokers living in high air pollution areas are less clear.
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  • Marcon, Alessandro, et al. (författare)
  • Airway responsiveness to methacholine and incidence of COPD : an international prospective cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:9, s. 825-832
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It has been debated, but not yet established, whether increased airway responsiveness can predict COPD. Recognising this link may help in identifying subjects at risk.Objective: We studied prospectively whether airway responsiveness is associated with the risk of developing COPD.Methods: We pooled data from two multicentre cohort studies that collected data from three time points using similar methods (European Community Respiratory Health Survey and Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults). We classified subjects (median age 37 years, 1st–3rd quartiles: 29–44) by their level of airway responsiveness using quintiles of methacholine dose–response slope at the first examination (1991–1994). Then, we excluded subjects with airflow obstruction at the second examination (1999–2003) and analysed incidence of COPD (postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal) at the third examination (2010–2014) as a function of responsiveness, adjusting for sex, age, education, body mass index, history of asthma, smoking, occupational exposures and indicators of airway calibre.Results: We observed 108 new cases of COPD among 4205 subjects during a median time of 9 years. Compared with the least responsive group (incidence rate 0.6 per 1000/year), adjusted incidence rate ratios for COPD ranged from 1.79 (95% CI 0.52 to 6.13) to 8.91 (95% CI 3.67 to 21.66) for increasing airway responsiveness. Similar dose–response associations were observed between smokers and non-smokers, and stronger associations were found among subjects without a history of asthma or asthma-like symptoms.Conclusions: Our study suggests that increased airway responsiveness is an independent risk factor for COPD. Further research should clarify whether early treatment in patients with high responsiveness can slow down disease progression.
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  • Moitra, Subhabrata, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of asthma on the development of obesity among adults : Results of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Obesity has been associated with asthma, however the reverse relation has recently been observed among children.Objective: To investigate whether asthma contributes to obesity incidence in adults.Methods: The ECRHS is a cohort study with two follow-ups around, 10-years (ECRHS-II) and 20-years (ECRHS-III) after enrolment. Participants with obesity (BMI>30kg/m2) at baseline were excluded (n=957), leaving 8618 non-obese subjects who participated in at least one follow-up. Asthmatics were described if the subjects reported ever having asthma and had an asthma attack or woke up by an attack of shortness of breath in last 12 months or on current asthma medication. We evaluated the association between: (1) asthma at baseline (ECRHS-I) and obesity at ECRHS-II; and (2) newly reported asthma at ECRHS-II and obesity at ECRHS-III.Results: 10.2% of asthmatics at baseline developed obesity after 10 years compared to 7.7% of non-asthmatics (Age, sex & country-adjusted relative risk: 1.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.55). Further adjustment for BMI at baseline slightly reduced this risk (RR:1.2; 95%CI: 1.0-1.4). Obesity risk was highest for those developing asthma in adulthood (RR:1.37; 95%CI: 1.01-1.86) compared to those with childhood onset asthma (RR: 1.13; 95%CI: 0.83-1.53). Asthmatics who were non-atopic at baseline had a higher risk of developing obesity at 1st follow up (RR: 1.47; 95%CI: 1.15-1.86). Similar trend was observed in newly reported asthmatics in ECRHS-II and increased obesity risk at the final follow up ECRHS-III (RR: 1.22; 95%CI: 0.86-1.73).Conclusion: These results suggest that asthmatics are at a higher risk of developing obesity.
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