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Sökning: WFRF:(Gaudet D) > (2001-2004)

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  • Hirschhorn, J.N., et al. (författare)
  • Genomewide linkage analysis of stature in multiple populations reveals several regions with evidence of linkage to adult height
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - : Cell Press. - 0002-9297. ; 69:1, s. 106-116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genomewide linkage analysis has been extremely successful at identification of the genetic variation underlying single-gene disorders. However, linkage analysis has been less successful for common human diseases and other complex traits in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to influence disease risk. We hypothesized that a highly heritable complex trait, in which the contribution of environmental factors was relatively limited, might be more amenable to linkage analysis. We therefore chose to study stature (adult height), for which heritability is 75%-90% (Phillips and Matheny 1990; Carmichael and McGue 1995; Preece 1996; Silventoinen et al. 2000). We reanalyzed genomewide scans from four populations for which genotype and height data were available, using a variance-components method implemented in GENEHUNTER 2.0 (Pratt et al. 2000). The populations consisted of 408 individuals in 58 families from the Botnia region of Finland, 753 individuals in 183 families from other parts of Finland, 746 individuals in 179 families from Southern Sweden, and 420 individuals in 63 families from the Saguenay-Lac-St.-Jean region of Quebec. Four regions showed evidence of linkage to stature: 6q24-25, multipoint LOD score 3.85 at marker D6S1007 in Botnia (genomewide P<.06), 7q31.3-36 (LOD 3.40 at marker D7S2195 in Sweden, P<.02), 12p11.2-q14 (LOD 3.35 at markers D12S10990-D12S398 in Finland,P<.05) and 13q32-33 (LOD 3.56 at markers D13S779-D13S797 in Finland, P<.05). In a companion article (Perola et al. 2001 [in this issue]), strong supporting evidence is obtained for linkage to the region on chromosome 7. These studies suggest that highly heritable complex traits such as stature may be genetically tractable and provide insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits.
  • Engert, JC, et al. (författare)
  • 5 ' flanking variants of resistin are associated with obesity
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 51:5, s. 1629-1634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diabetes and obesity have long been known to be related. The recently characterized adipocyte hormone resistin (also called FIZZ3/ADSF) has been implicated as a molecular link between impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and obesity in mice. A search for sequence variants at the human resistin locus identified nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) but no coding variants. An investigation into the association of these SNPs with diabetes and obesity revealed two 5' flanking variants (g.-537 and g.-420), in strong linkage disequilibrium, that are associated with BMI. In nondiabetic individuals from the Quebec City area and the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean region of Quebec, the g.-537 mutation (allelic frequency = 0.04) was significantly associated with an increase in BMI (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). When the data from these two populations were combined and adjusted for age and sex, both the g.-537 (odds ratio [OR] 2.72, 95% Cl 1.28-5.81) and the g.-420 variants (1.58, 1.06-2.35) were associated with an increased risk for a BMI greater than or equal to30 kg/m(2). In contrast, in case/control and family-based study populations from Scandinavia, we saw no effect on BMI with either of these promoter variants. No association was seen with diabetes in any of the population samples.
  • Florez, JC, et al. (författare)
  • Association testing in 9,000 people fails to confirm the association of the insulin receptor substrate-1 G972R polymorphism with type 2 diabetes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 53:12, s. 3313-3318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 is an important component of the insulin signal transduction cascade. Several reports suggest that a Gly-->Arg change in codon 972 is associated with type 2 diabetes and related traits, and a recent meta-analysis reported a modest but nominally significant association with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.25 in favor of carriers of the Arg allele [95% CI 1.05-1.48). To test the reproducibility of the model in a recent meta-analysis, we examined genotype-phenotype correlation in three large Caucasian samples (not previously reported for this variant) totaling 9,000 individuals (estimated to have >95% power to obtain a P<0.05 for the OR of 1.25 estimated in the meta-analysis). In our combined sample, comprising 4,279 case and 3,532 control subjects, as well as 1,189 siblings discordant for type 2 diabetes, G972R was not associated with type 2 diabetes (OR 0.96 [0.84-1.10], P = 0.60). Genotype at G972R had no significant effect on various measures of insulin secretion or insulin resistance in a set of Scandinavian samples in whom we had detailed phenotypic data. In contrast, the well-documented associations of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma P12A and Kir6.2 E23K with type 2 diabetes are both robustly observed in these 9,000 subjects, including an additional (previously unpublished) confirmation of Kir6.2 E23K and type 2 diabetes in the Polish and North American samples (combined OR 1.15 [1.05-1.261, P = 0.001). Despite genotyping 9,000 people and >95% power to reproduce the estimated OR from the recent meta-analysis, we were unable to replicate the association of the IRS-1 G972R polymorphism with type 2 diabetes.
  • Rioux, John D., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in the 5q31 cytokine gene cluster confers susceptibility to Crohn disease
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 29:2, s. 223-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping provides a powerful method for fine-structure localization of rare disease genes, but has not yet been widely applied to common disease1. We sought to design a systematic approach for LD mapping and apply it to the localization of a gene (IBD5) conferring susceptibility to Crohn disease. The key issues are: (i) to detect a significant LD signal (ii) to rigorously bound the critical region and (iii) to identify the causal genetic variant within this region. We previously mapped the IBD5 locus to a large region spanning 18 cM of chromosome 5q31 (P<10−4). Using dense genetic maps of microsatellite markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the entire region, we found strong evidence of LD. We bound the region to a common haplotype spanning 250 kb that shows strong association with the disease (P<2×10−7) and contains the cytokine gene cluster. This finding provides overwhelming evidence that a specific common haplotype of the cytokine region in 5q31 confers susceptibility to Crohn disease. However, genetic evidence alone is not sufficient to identify the causal mutation within this region, as strong LD across the region results in multiple SNPs having equivalent genetic evidence—each consistent with the expected properties of the IBD5 locus. These results have important implications for Crohn disease in particular and LD mapping in general.
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