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  • Salvado, G., et al. (författare)
  • Centiloid cut-off values for optimal agreement between PET and CSF core AD biomarkers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers Research & Therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe Centiloid scale has been developed to standardize measurements of amyloid PET imaging. Reference cut-off values of this continuous measurement enable the consistent operationalization of decision-making for multicentre research studies and clinical trials. In this study, we aimed at deriving reference Centiloid thresholds that maximize the agreement against core Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two large independent cohorts.MethodsA total of 516 participants of the ALFA+ Study (N=205) and ADNI (N=311) underwent amyloid PET imaging ([F-18]flutemetamol and [F-18]florbetapir, respectively) and core AD CSF biomarker determination using Elecsys (R) tests. Tracer uptake was quantified in Centiloid units (CL). Optimal Centiloid cut-offs were sought that maximize the agreement between PET and dichotomous determinations based on CSF levels of A(42), tTau, pTau, and their ratios, using pre-established reference cut-off values. To this end, a receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) was conducted, and Centiloid cut-offs were calculated as those that maximized the Youden's J Index or the overall percentage agreement recorded.ResultsAll Centiloid cut-offs fell within the range of 25-35, except for CSF A(42) that rendered an optimal cut-off value of 12 CL. As expected, the agreement of tau/A(42) ratios was higher than that of CSF A(42). Centiloid cut-off robustness was confirmed even when established in an independent cohort and against variations of CSF cut-offs.ConclusionsA cut-off of 12 CL matches previously reported values derived against postmortem measures of AD neuropathology. Together with these previous findings, our results flag two relevant inflection points that would serve as boundary of different stages of amyloid pathology: one around 12 CL that marks the transition from the absence of pathology to subtle pathology and another one around 30 CL indicating the presence of established pathology. The derivation of robust and generalizable cut-offs for core AD biomarkers requires cohorts with adequate representation of intermediate levels.Trial registrationALFA+ Study, NCT02485730ALFA PET Sub-study, NCT02685969
  • Heeman, F., et al. (författare)
  • Optimized dual-time-window protocols for quantitative F-18 flutemetamol and F-18 florbetaben PET studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Ejnmmi Research. - 2191-219X. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundA long dynamic scanning protocol may be required to accurately measure longitudinal changes in amyloid load. However, such a protocol results in a lower patient comfort and scanning efficiency compared to static scans. A compromise can be achieved by implementing dual-time-window protocols. This study aimed to optimize these protocols for quantitative [F-18]flutemetamol and [F-18]florbetaben studies.MethodsRate constants for subjects across the Alzheimer's disease spectrum (i.e., non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) in the range 0.02-0.77 and 0.02-1.04 for [F-18]flutemetamol and [F-18]florbetaben, respectively) were established based on clinical [F-18]flutemetamol (N=6) and [F-18]florbetaben (N=20) data, and used to simulate tissue time-activity curves (TACs) of 110min using a reference tissue and plasma input model. Next, noise was added (N=50) and data points corresponding to different intervals were removed from the TACs, ranging from 0 (i.e., 90-90=full-kinetic curve) to 80 (i.e., 10-90) minutes, creating a dual-time-window. Resulting TACs were fitted using the simplified reference tissue method (SRTM) to estimate the BPND, outliers (1.5xBP(ND) max) were removed and the bias was assessed using the distribution volume ratio (DVR=BPND+1). To this end, acceptability curves, which display the fraction of data below a certain bias threshold, were generated and the area under those curves were calculated.Results[F-18]Flutemetamol and [F-18]florbetaben data demonstrated an increased bias in amyloid estimate for larger intervals and higher noise levels. An acceptable bias (3.1%) in DVR could be obtained with all except the 10-90 and 20-90-min intervals. Furthermore, a reduced fraction of acceptable data and most outliers were present for these two largest intervals (maximum percentage outliers 48 and 32 for [F-18]flutemetamol and [F-18]florbetaben, respectively).ConclusionsThe length of the interval inversely correlates with the accuracy of the BPND estimates. Consequently, a dual-time-window protocol of 0-30 and 90-110min (=maximum of 60min interval) allows for accurate estimation of BPND values for both tracers.[F-18]flutemetamol: EudraCT 2007-000784-19, registered 8 February 2007, [F-18]florbetaben: EudraCT 2006-003882-15, registered 2006.
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