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Sökning: WFRF:(Gonzalez MJ) > (2000-2004)

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  • Gonzalez, CA, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : Wiley. - 0020-7136. ; 107:4, s. 629-634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking has recently been recognised as causally associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC). However, evidence on the effect by sex, duration and intensity of smoking, anatomic subsite and cessation of smoking is limited. Our objective was to assess the relation between tobacco use and GC incidence in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We studied data from 521,468 individuals recruited from 10 European countries taking part in the EPIC study. Participants completed lifestyle questionnaires that included questions on lifetime consumption of tobacco and diet in 1991-1998. Participants were followed until September 2002, and during that period 305 cases of stomach cancer were identified. After exclusions, 274 were eligible for the analysis, using the Cox proportional hazard model. After adjustment for educational level, consumption of fresh fruit, vegetables and preserved meat, alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI), there was a significant association between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer risk: the hazard ratio (HR) for ever smokers was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-1.94). The HR of current cigarette smoking was 1.73 (95% CI = 1.06-2.83) in males and 1.87 (95% CI = 1.12-3.12) in females. Hazard ratios increased with intensity and duration of cigarette smoked. A significant decrease of risk was observed after 10 years of quitting smoking. A preliminary analysis of 121 cases with identified anatomic site showed that current cigarette smokers had a higher HR of GC in the cardia (HR = 4.10) than in the distal part of the stomach (HR = 1.94). In this cohort, 17.6 % (95% CI = 10.5-29.5 %) of GC cases may be attributable to smoking. Findings from this large study support the causal relation between smoking and gastric cancer in this European population. Stomach cancer should be added to the burden of diseases caused by smoking. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • Jaarola, Maarit, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular phylogeny of the speciose vole genus Microtus (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - : Elsevier BV. - 1095-9513 .- 1055-7903. ; 33:3, s. 647-663
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Voles of the genus Microtus represent one of the most speciose mammalian genera in the Holarctic. We established a molecular phylogeny for Microtus to resolve contentious issues of systematic relationships and evolutionary history in this genus. A total of 81 specimens representing ten Microtus species endemic to Europe as well as eight Eurasian, six Asian and one Holarctic species were sequenced for the entire cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). A further 25 sequences were retrieved from GenBank, providing data on an additional 23, mainly Nearctic, Microtus species. Phylogenetic analysis of these 48 species generated four well-supported monophyletic lineages. The genus Chionomys, snow voles, formed a distinct and well-supported lineage separate from the genus Microtus. The subgenus Microtus formed the strongest supported lineage with two sublineage displaying a close relationship between the arvalis species group (common voles) and the socialis species group (social voles). Monophyly of the Palearctic pitymyid voles, subgenus Terricola, was supported, and this subgenus was also subdivided into two monophyletic species groups. Together, these groupings clarify long-standing taxonomic uncertainties in Microtus. In addition, the "Asian" and the Nearctic lineages reported previously were identified although the latter group was not supported. However, relationships among the main Microtus branches were not resolved. suggesting a rapid and potentially Simultaneous radiation of a widespread ancestor early in the history of the genus. This and subsequent radiations discernible in the cytochrome b phylogeny, show the considerable potential of Microtus for analysis of historical and ecological determinants of speciation in small mammals. It is evident that speciation is an ongoing process in the genus and that the molecular data provides a vital insight into current species limits as well as cladogenic events of the past. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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