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Sökning: WFRF:(Gottlieb Y.) > (2020-2022)

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  • Bauer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Variations in seasonal solar insolation are associated with a history of suicide attempts in bipolar I disorder
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. - 2194-7511. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Bipolar disorder is associated with circadian disruption and a high risk of suicidal behavior. In a previous exploratory study of patients with bipolar I disorder, we found that a history of suicide attempts was associated with differences between winter and summer levels of solar insolation. The purpose of this study was to confirm this finding using international data from 42% more collection sites and 25% more countries. Methods Data analyzed were from 71 prior and new collection sites in 40 countries at a wide range of latitudes. The analysis included 4876 patients with bipolar I disorder, 45% more data than previously analyzed. Of the patients, 1496 (30.7%) had a history of suicide attempt. Solar insolation data, the amount of the sun's electromagnetic energy striking the surface of the earth, was obtained for each onset location (479 locations in 64 countries). Results This analysis confirmed the results of the exploratory study with the same best model and slightly better statistical significance. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempts and the ratio of mean winter insolation to mean summer insolation (mean winter insolation/mean summer insolation). This ratio is largest near the equator which has little change in solar insolation over the year, and smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. Other variables in the model associated with an increased risk of suicide attempts were a history of alcohol or substance abuse, female gender, and younger birth cohort. The winter/summer insolation ratio was also replaced with the ratio of minimum mean monthly insolation to the maximum mean monthly insolation to accommodate insolation patterns in the tropics, and nearly identical results were found. All estimated coefficients were significant at p < 0.01. Conclusion A large change in solar insolation, both between winter and summer and between the minimum and maximum monthly values, may increase the risk of suicide attempts in bipolar I disorder. With frequent circadian rhythm dysfunction and suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder, greater understanding of the optimal roles of daylight and electric lighting in circadian entrainment is needed.
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  • Berne, Olivier, et al. (författare)
  • PDRs4All: A JWST Early Release Science Program on Radiative Feedback from Massive Stars
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. - 0004-6280 .- 1538-3873. ; 134:1035
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Massive stars disrupt their natal molecular cloud material through radiative and mechanical feedback processes. These processes have profound effects on the evolution of interstellar matter in our Galaxy and throughout the universe, from the era of vigorous star formation at redshifts of 1-3 to the present day. The dominant feedback processes can be probed by observations of the Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) where the far-ultraviolet photons of massive stars create warm regions of gas and dust in the neutral atomic and molecular gas. PDR emission provides a unique tool to study in detail the physical and chemical processes that are relevant for most of the mass in inter- and circumstellar media including diffuse clouds, proto-planetary disks, and molecular cloud surfaces, globules, planetary nebulae, and star-forming regions. PDR emission dominates the infrared (IR) spectra of star-forming galaxies. Most of the Galactic and extragalactic observations obtained with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will therefore arise in PDR emission. In this paper we present an Early Release Science program using the MIRI, NIRSpec, and NIRCam instruments dedicated to the observations of an emblematic and nearby PDR: the Orion Bar. These early JWST observations will provide template data sets designed to identify key PDR characteristics in JWST observations. These data will serve to benchmark PDR models and extend them into the JWST era. We also present the Science-Enabling products that we will provide to the community. These template data sets and Science-Enabling products will guide the preparation of future proposals on star-forming regions in our Galaxy and beyond and will facilitate data analysis and interpretation of forthcoming JWST observations.
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  • Le Pavec, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Lung transplantation for sarcoidosis: outcome and prognostic factors
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - 0903-1936. ; 58:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study question In patients with sarcoidosis, past and ongoing immunosuppressive regimens, recurrent disease in the transplant and extrapulmonary involvement may affect outcomes of lung transplantation. We asked whether sarcoidosis lung phenotypes can be differentiated and, if so, how they relate to outcomes in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis treated by lung transplantation. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed data from 112 patients who met international diagnostic criteria for sarcoidosis and underwent lung or heart-lung transplantation between 2006 and 2019 at 16 European centres. Results Patient survival was the main outcome measure. At transplantation, median (interaquartile range (IQR)) age was 52 (46-59) years; 71 (64%) were male. Lung phenotypes were individualised as follows: 1) extended fibrosis only; 2) airflow obstruction; 3) severe pulmonary hypertension (sPH) and airflow obstruction; 4) sPH, airflow obstruction and fibrosis; 5) sPH and fibrosis; 6) airflow obstruction and fibrosis; 7) sPH; and 8) none of these criteria, in 17%, 16%, 17%, 14%, 11%, 9%, 5% and 11% of patients, respectively. Post-transplant survival rates after 1, 3, and 5 years were 86%, 76% and 69%, respectively. During follow-up (median (IQR) 46 (16-89) months), 31% of patients developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Age and extended lung fibrosis were associated with increased mortality. Pulmonary fibrosis predominating peripherally was associated with short-term complications. Answer to the study question Post-transplant survival in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis was similar to that in patients with other indications for lung transplantation. The main factors associated with worse survival were older age and extensive pre-operative lung fibrosis.
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