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Sökning: WFRF:(Gurholt T. P.) > (2020)

  • Resultat 1-4 av 4
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1.
  • Grasby, KL, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science (New York, N.Y.). - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 367:6484, s. 1340-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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  • Gurholt, Tiril P., et al. (författare)
  • Intracranial and subcortical volumes in adolescents with early‐onset psychosis : A multisite mega‐analysis from the ENIGMA consortium
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping. - Stockholm : Wiley. - 1065-9471 .- 1097-0193. ; 43:1, s. 373-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early-onset psychosis disorders are serious mental disorders arising before the age of 18 years. Here, we investigate the largest neuroimaging dataset, to date, of patients with early-onset psychosis and healthy controls for differences in intracranial and subcortical brain volumes. The sample included 263 patients with early-onset psychosis (mean age: 16.4 ± 1.4 years, mean illness duration: 1.5 ± 1.4 years, 39.2% female) and 359 healthy controls (mean age: 15.9 ± 1.7 years, 45.4% female) with magnetic resonance imaging data, pooled from 11 clinical cohorts. Patients were diagnosed with early-onset schizophrenia (n = 183), affective psychosis (n = 39), or other psychotic disorders (n = 41). We used linear mixed-effects models to investigate differences in intracranial and subcortical volumes across the patient sample, diagnostic subgroup and antipsychotic medication, relative to controls. We observed significantly lower intracranial (Cohen's d = −0.39) and hippocampal (d = −0.25) volumes, and higher caudate (d = 0.25) and pallidum (d = 0.24) volumes in patients relative to controls. Intracranial volume was lower in both early-onset schizophrenia (d = −0.34) and affective psychosis (d = −0.42), and early-onset schizophrenia showed lower hippocampal (d = −0.24) and higher pallidum (d = 0.29) volumes. Patients who were currently treated with antipsychotic medication (n = 193) had significantly lower intracranial volume (d = −0.42). The findings demonstrate a similar pattern of brain alterations in early-onset psychosis as previously reported in adult psychosis, but with notably low intracranial volume. The low intracranial volume suggests disrupted neurodevelopment in adolescent early-onset psychosis.
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4.
  • Tønnesen, Siren, et al. (författare)
  • Brain Age Prediction Reveals Aberrant Brain White Matter in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder : A Multisample Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - : Elsevier BV. - 2451-9022. ; 5:12, s. 1095-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share substantial neurodevelopmental components affecting brain maturation and architecture. This necessitates a dynamic lifespan perspective in which brain aberrations are inferred from deviations from expected lifespan trajectories. We applied machine learning to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices of white matter structure and organization to estimate and compare brain age between patients with SZ, patients with BD, and healthy control (HC) subjects across 10 cohorts.METHODS: We trained 6 cross-validated models using different combinations of DTI data from 927 HC subjects (18-94 years of age) and applied the models to the test sets including 648 patients with SZ (18-66 years of age), 185 patients with BD (18-64 years of age), and 990 HC subjects (17-68 years of age), estimating the brain age for each participant. Group differences were assessed using linear models, accounting for age, sex, and scanner. A meta-analytic framework was applied to assess the heterogeneity and generalizability of the results.RESULTS: Tenfold cross-validation revealed high accuracy for all models. Compared with HC subjects, the model including all feature sets significantly overestimated the age of patients with SZ (Cohen's d = -0.29) and patients with BD (Cohen's d = 0.18), with similar effects for the other models. The meta-analysis converged on the same findings. Fractional anisotropy-based models showed larger group differences than the models based on other DTI-derived metrics.CONCLUSIONS: Brain age prediction based on DTI provides informative and robust proxies for brain white matter integrity. Our results further suggest that white matter aberrations in SZ and BD primarily consist of anatomically distributed deviations from expected lifespan trajectories that generalize across cohorts and scanners.
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  • Resultat 1-4 av 4

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