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Sökning: WFRF:(Haiman Christopher) > (2020-2023)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 33
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
  • Thomas, Minta, et al. (författare)
  • Combining Asian and European genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer improves risk prediction across racial and ethnic populations
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have great potential to guide precision colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention by identifying those at higher risk to undertake targeted screening. However, current PRS using European ancestry data have sub-optimal performance in non-European ancestry populations, limiting their utility among these populations. Towards addressing this deficiency, we expand PRS development for CRC by incorporating Asian ancestry data (21,731 cases; 47,444 controls) into European ancestry training datasets (78,473 cases; 107,143 controls). The AUC estimates (95% CI) of PRS are 0.63(0.62-0.64), 0.59(0.57-0.61), 0.62(0.60-0.63), and 0.65(0.63-0.66) in independent datasets including 1681-3651 cases and 8696-115,105 controls of Asian, Black/African American, Latinx/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White, respectively. They are significantly better than the European-centric PRS in all four major US racial and ethnic groups (p-values < 0.05). Further inclusion of non-European ancestry populations, especially Black/African American and Latinx/Hispanic, is needed to improve the risk prediction and enhance equity in applying PRS in clinical practice.
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12.
  • Wang, Xiaoliang, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide interaction analysis of menopausal hormone therapy use and breast cancer risk among 62,370 women
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Springer Nature. - 2045-2322. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is associated with increased risk for breast cancer. However, the relevant mechanisms and its interaction with genetic variants are not fully understood. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between MHT use and genetic variants for breast cancer risk in 27,585 cases and 34,785 controls from 26 observational studies. All women were post-menopausal and of European ancestry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test for multiplicative interactions between genetic variants and current MHT use. We considered interaction p-values < 5 x 10(-8) as genome-wide significant, and p-values < 1 x 10(-5) as suggestive. Linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based clumping was performed to identify independent candidate variants. None of the 9.7 million genetic variants tested for interactions with MHT use reached genome-wide significance. Only 213 variants, representing 18 independent loci, had p-values < 1 x 10(5). The strongest evidence was found for rs4674019 (p-value = 2.27 x 10(-7)), which showed genome-wide significant interaction (p-value = 3.8 x 10(-8)) with current MHT use when analysis was restricted to population-based studies only. Limiting the analyses to combined estrogen-progesterone MHT use only or to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cases did not identify any genome-wide significant evidence of interactions. In this large genome-wide SNP-MHT interaction study of breast cancer, we found no strong support for common genetic variants modifying the effect of MHT on breast cancer risk. These results suggest that common genetic variation has limited impact on the observed MHT-breast cancer risk association.
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13.
  • Ahearn, Thomas U., et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in breast cancer risk loci predispose to distinct tumor subtypes
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - : Springer Nature. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 24:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear.MethodsAmong 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes.ResultsEighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions.ConclusionThis report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
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14.
  • Chen, Dorothy M, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptome-Wide Association Analysis Identifies Novel Candidate Susceptibility Genes for Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Men Without Prostate Cancer
  • 2023
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Deciphering the genetic basis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels may improve their utility to screen for prostate cancer (PCa). We thus conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) of PSA levels using genome-wide summary statistics from 95,768 PCa-free men, the MetaXcan framework, and gene prediction models trained in Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project data. Tissue-specific analyses identified 41 statistically significant (p < 0.05/12,192 = 4.10e-6) associations in whole blood and 39 statistically significant (p < 0.05/13,844 = 3.61e-6) associations in prostate tissue, with 18 genes associated in both tissues. Cross-tissue analyses that combined associations across 45 tissues identified 155 genes that were statistically significantly (p < 0.05/22,249 = 2.25e-6) associated with PSA levels. Based on conditional analyses that assessed whether TWAS associations were attributable to a lead GWAS variant, we found 20 novel genes (11 single-tissue, 9 cross-tissue) that were associated with PSA levels in the TWAS. Of these novel genes, five showed evidence of colocalization (colocalization probability > 0.5): EXOSC9, CCNA2, HIST1H2BN, RP11-182L21.6 , and RP11-327J17.2 . Six of the 20 novel genes are not known to impact PCa risk. These findings yield new hypotheses for genetic factors underlying PSA levels that should be further explored toward improving our understanding of PSA biology.
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15.
  • Chou, Alisha, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels with Prostate Cancer Risk in a Multiethnic Population : Stability over Time and Comparison with Polygenic Risk Score
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. - 1538-7755. ; 31:12, s. 2199-2207
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Studies in men of European ancestry suggest prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a marker of early prostate cancer (PCa) development that may help to risk-stratify men earlier in life.METHODS: We examined PSA levels in men measured up to 10+ years before a PCa diagnosis in association with PCa risk in 2,245 cases and 2,203 controls of African American, Latino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, and White men in the Multiethnic Cohort. We also compared the discriminative ability of PSA to polygenic risk score (PRS) for PCa.RESULTS: Excluding cases diagnosed within 2 and 10 years of blood draw, men with PSA above the median had a PCa OR (95% CIs) of 9.12 (7.66-10.92) and 3.52 (2.50-5.03), respectively, compared to men with PSA below the median. A PSA level above the median identified 90% and 75% of cases diagnosed more than 2 and 10 years after blood draw, respectively. The associations were significantly greater for Gleason ≤7 vs. 8+ disease. At 10+ years, the association of PCa with PSA was comparable to that with the PRS (OR per SD increase: 1.88 (1.45-2.46) and 2.12 (1.55-2.93), respectively).CONCLUSIONS: We found PSA to be an informative marker of PCa risk at least a decade before diagnosis across multiethnic populations. This association was diminished with increasing time, greater for low grade tumors, and comparable to a PRS when measured 10+ years before diagnosis.IMPACT: Our multiethnic investigation suggests broad clinical implications on the utility of PSA and PRS for risk stratification in PCa screening practices.
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16.
  • Collins, Ryan, et al. (författare)
  • A structural variation reference for medical and population genetics
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 581, s. 444-451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Structural variants (SVs) rearrange large segments of DNA1 and can have profound consequences in evolution and human disease2,3. As national biobanks, disease-association studies, and clinical genetic testing have grown increasingly reliant on genome sequencing, population references such as the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD)4 have become integral in the interpretation of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs)5. However, there are no reference maps of SVs from high-coverage genome sequencing comparable to those for SNVs. Here we present a reference of sequence-resolved SVs constructed from 14,891 genomes across diverse global populations (54% non-European) in gnomAD. We discovered a rich and complex landscape of 433,371 SVs, from which we estimate that SVs are responsible for 25–29% of all rare protein-truncating events per genome. We found strong correlations between natural selection against damaging SNVs and rare SVs that disrupt or duplicate protein-coding sequence, which suggests that genes that are highly intolerant to loss-of-function are also sensitive to increased dosage6. We also uncovered modest selection against noncoding SVs in cis-regulatory elements, although selection against protein-truncating SVs was stronger than all noncoding effects. Finally, we identified very large (over one megabase), rare SVs in 3.9% of samples, and estimate that 0.13% of individuals may carry an SV that meets the existing criteria for clinically important incidental findings7. This SV resource is freely distributed via the gnomAD browser8 and will have broad utility in population genetics, disease-association studies, and diagnostic screening.
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17.
  • Cummings, Beryl B., et al. (författare)
  • Transcript expression-aware annotation improves rare variant interpretation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 581, s. 452-458
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The acceleration of DNA sequencing in samples from patients and population studies has resulted in extensive catalogues of human genetic variation, but the interpretation of rare genetic variants remains problematic. A notable example of this challenge is the existence of disruptive variants in dosage-sensitive disease genes, even in apparently healthy individuals. Here, by manual curation of putative loss-of-function (pLoF) variants in haploinsufficient disease genes in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD)1, we show that one explanation for this paradox involves alternative splicing of mRNA, which allows exons of a gene to be expressed at varying levels across different cell types. Currently, no existing annotation tool systematically incorporates information about exon expression into the interpretation of variants. We develop a transcript-level annotation metric known as the ‘proportion expressed across transcripts’, which quantifies isoform expression for variants. We calculate this metric using 11,706 tissue samples from the Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) project2 and show that it can differentiate between weakly and highly evolutionarily conserved exons, a proxy for functional importance. We demonstrate that expression-based annotation selectively filters 22.8% of falsely annotated pLoF variants found in haploinsufficient disease genes in gnomAD, while removing less than 4% of high-confidence pathogenic variants in the same genes. Finally, we apply our expression filter to the analysis of de novo variants in patients with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability or developmental disorders to show that pLoF variants in weakly expressed regions have similar effect sizes to those of synonymous variants, whereas pLoF variants in highly expressed exons are most strongly enriched among cases. Our annotation is fast, flexible and generalizable, making it possible for any variant file to be annotated with any isoform expression dataset, and will be valuable for the genetic diagnosis of rare diseases, the analysis of rare variant burden in complex disorders, and the curation and prioritization of variants in recall-by-genotype studies.
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18.
  • Darst, Burcu F., et al. (författare)
  • The Four-Kallikrein Panel Is Effective in Identifying Aggressive Prostate Cancer in a Multiethnic Population
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. - 1538-7755. ; 29:7, s. 1381-1388
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The four-kallikrein (4K) panel has been demonstrated to improve prediction of aggressive prostate cancer compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) among men with moderately elevated PSA levels. However, the development and testing of the 4K panel has been conducted primarily in White men, with limited data in African Americans and no studies in other racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: We evaluated the 4K panel in a nested case-control study among African American, Latino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, and White men in the Multiethnic Cohort. Prediagnostic blood levels of free, intact, and total PSA and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 were measured among 1,667 incident prostate cancer cases and 691 controls with PSA ≥2 ng/mL. We evaluated the discriminative ability of the 4K panel within and across all racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: The 4K panel enhanced discrimination of overall prostate cancer compared with free plus total PSA and total PSA alone (AUC 0.748 vs. 0.711 and 0.669, respectively). Discrimination was further enhanced for Gleason 8+ prostate cancer, aggressive prostate cancer, and death due to prostate cancer, and to a lesser degree for nonaggressive prostate cancer. Improvement of the 4K panel over PSA was observed in each population. Adding a prostate cancer polygenic risk score slightly improved upon the discriminative ability of the 4K panel. CONCLUSIONS: The superior discriminative ability of the 4K panel over PSA for overall and aggressive prostate cancer across multiethnic populations indicates the broad clinical applicability of the 4K panel. IMPACT: Our multiethnic investigation suggests potential for the 4K panel to improve current prostate cancer screening practices.
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19.
  • Erzurumluoglu, A. Mesut, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of up to 622,409 individuals identifies 40 novel smoking behaviour associated genetic loci
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 25:10, s. 2392-2409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.
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20.
  • Hoffmann, Thomas J, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels in 392,522 men identifies new loci and improves cross-ancestry prediction
  • 2023
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in 296,754 men (211,342 European ancestry; 58,236 African ancestry; 23,546 Hispanic/Latino; 3,630 Asian ancestry; 96.5% of participants were from the Million Veteran Program). We identified 318 independent genome-wide significant (p≤5e-8) variants, 184 of which were novel. Most demonstrated evidence of replication in an independent cohort (n=95,768). Meta-analyzing discovery and replication (n=392,522) identified 447 variants, of which a further 111 were novel. Out-of-sample variance in PSA explained by our new polygenic risk score reached 16.9% (95% CI=16.1%-17.8%) in European ancestry, 9.5% (95% CI=7.0%-12.2%) in African ancestry, 18.6% (95% CI=15.8%-21.4%) in Hispanic/Latino, and 15.3% (95% CI=12.7%-18.1%) in Asian ancestry, and lower for higher age. Our study highlights how including proportionally more participants from underrepresented populations improves genetic prediction of PSA levels, with potential to personalize prostate cancer screening.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 33
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa

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