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Sökning: WFRF:(Hallmans Göran 1947 ) > (2020-2022)

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1.
  • Clendenen, Tess V., et al. (författare)
  • Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Circulating Anti-Müllerian Hormone Concentration in Healthy Premenopausal Women
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 106:11, s. E4542-E4553
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: We previously reported that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, is positively associated with breast cancer risk, consistent with other studies.Objective: This study assessed whether risk factors for breast cancer are correlates of AMH concentration.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3831 healthy premenopausal women (aged 21-57, 87% aged 35-49) from 10 cohort studies among the general population.Results: Adjusting for age and cohort, AMH positively associated with age at menarche (P < 0.0001) and parity (P = 0.0008) and inversely associated with hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy (P = 0.0008). Compared with women of normal weight, AMH was lower (relative geometric mean difference 27%, P < 0.0001) among women who were obese. Current oral contraceptive (OC) use and current/former smoking were associated with lower AMH concentration than never use (40% and 12% lower, respectively, P < 0.0001). We observed higher AMH concentrations among women who had had a benign breast biopsy (15% higher, P = 0.03), a surrogate for benign breast disease, an association that has not been reported. In analyses stratified by age (<40 vs ≥40), associations of AMH with body mass index and OCs were similar in younger and older women, while associations with the other factors (menarche, parity, hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy, smoking, and benign breast biopsy) were limited to women ≥40 (P-interaction < 0.05).Conclusion: This is the largest study of AMH and breast cancer risk factors among women from the general population (not presenting with infertility), and it suggests that most associations are limited to women over 40, who are approaching menopause and whose AMH concentration is declining.
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2.
  • Erzurumluoglu, A. Mesut, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of up to 622,409 individuals identifies 40 novel smoking behaviour associated genetic loci
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 25:10, s. 2392-2409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.
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3.
  • Hathaway, Cassandra A., et al. (författare)
  • Prolactin and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research (AACR). - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 30:9, s. 1652-1659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prolactin is synthesized in the ovaries and may play a role in ovarian cancer etiology. One prior prospective study observed a suggestive positive association between prolactin levels and risk of ovarian cancer.Methods: Weconducted a pooled case-control study of 703 cases and 864 matched controls nested within five prospective cohorts. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between prolactin and ovarian cancer risk. We examined heterogeneity by menopausal status at blood collection, body mass index (BMI), age, and histotype.Results: Among women with known menopausal status, we observed a positive trend in the association between prolactin and ovarian cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.045; OR, quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.97–1.85), but no significant association was observed for premenopausal or postmenopausal women individually (corresponding OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 0.74–2.58; Ptrend = 0.32 and OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.93–2.13; Ptrend = 0.08, respectively; Pheterogeneity = 0.91). In stratified analyses, we observed a positive association between prolactin and risk for women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, but not BMI < 25 kg/m2 (corresponding OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.56–4.59; Ptrend < 0.01 and OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.58–1.40; Ptrend = 0.98, respectively; Pheterogeneity < 0.01). Associations did not vary by age, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, histotype, or time between blood draw and diagnosis.Conclusions: We found a trend between higher prolactin levels and increased ovarian cancer risk, especially among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2.Impact: This work supports a previous study linking higher prolactin with ovarian carcinogenesis in a high adiposity setting. Future work is needed to understand the mechanism underlying this association.
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4.
  • Klein, Robert J., et al. (författare)
  • Prostate cancer polygenic risk score and prediction of lethal prostate cancer
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: npj Precision Oncology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2397-768X. ; 6:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for prostate cancer incidence have been proposed to optimize prostate cancer screening. Prediction of lethal prostate cancer is key to any stratified screening program to avoid excessive overdiagnosis. Herein, PRS for incident prostate cancer was evaluated in two population-based cohorts of unscreened middle-aged men linked to cancer and death registries: the Västerbotten Intervention Project (VIP) and the Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC). SNP genotypes were measured by genome-wide SNP genotyping by array followed by imputation or genotyping of selected SNPs using mass spectrometry. The ability of PRS to predict lethal prostate cancer was compared to PSA and a commercialized pre-specified model based on four kallikrein markers. The PRS was associated with incident prostate cancer, replicating previously reported relative risks, and was also associated with prostate cancer death. However, unlike PSA, the PRS did not show stronger association with lethal disease: the hazard ratio for prostate cancer incidence vs. prostate cancer metastasis and death was 1.69 vs. 1.65 in VIP and 1.25 vs. 1.25 in MDC. PSA was a much stronger predictor of prostate cancer metastasis or death with an area-under-the-curve of 0.78 versus 0.63 for the PRS. Importantly, addition of PRS to PSA did not contribute additional risk stratification for lethal prostate cancer. We have shown that a PRS that predicts prostate cancer incidence does not have utility above and beyond that of PSA measured at baseline when applied to the clinically relevant endpoint of prostate cancer death. These findings have implications for public health policies for delivery of prostate cancer screening. Focusing polygenic risk scores on clinically significant endpoints such as prostate cancer metastasis or death would likely improve clinical utility.
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5.
  • Liu, Yuwei, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of fermented rye products on gut microbiota and their association with metabolic factors in Chinese adults : an explorative study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Food & Function. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 2042-6496 .- 2042-650X. ; 12:19, s. 9141-9150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rye is among the cereals with the highest content of dietary fibre. A high rye food intake has been associated with improved metabolic risk factors in some but not all observational and intervention studies. Whole-grain rye has also been suggested to affect the gut microbiota in individuals with metabolic syndrome. However, it is yet unclear to what extent effects on the gut microbiota mediate the beneficial metabolic responses of whole-grain rye intake. We hypothesized that a high intake of whole grain rye products containing fermented rye bran (FRB) vs. refined wheat based products (RW) could alter the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) composition towards a phenotype associated with beneficial metabolic effects in a population not used to such foods. For this purpose, we conducted a post hoc analysis of a 12-week randomized controlled trial in Chinese adults with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, with 53 participants consuming RW and 31 participants consuming FRB included in the analysis. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood and fecal sample analyses as well as 13C-urea breath test were performed at baseline and after a 12-week intervention. At week 12, we observed a higher serum insulin concentration (P-value = 0.038) in the FRB group (n = 31) versus the RW group (n = 53), and this difference was corroborated with alterations in the genus-level relative abundances of the gut microbiota, represented by an increase in Romboutsia and a reduction in Bilophila in the FRB group (n = 22) versus the RW group (n = 46). Compared to the RW group (n = 53), fecal acetic acid concentration was significantly higher in the FRB group (n = 31) at week 12. We also found that fecal acetic and butyric acids positively, while isobutyric, isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids inversely, correlated with the gut Romboutsia level among all participants (n = 68) at week 12. We found positive correlations of fecal isobutyric, isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids with gut Bilophila (n = 68). In conclusion, our results suggest that the intake of high-fibre rye products could modify gut Romboutsia and Bilophila in a Chinese population with HP infection. These effects are paralleled with favorable modifications of the SCFA concentration and are associated with altered glycemic traits.
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6.
  • Lopatko Lindman, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma Amyloid-β in Relation to Antibodies Against Herpes Simplex Virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports. - : IOS Press. - 2542-4823. ; 5:1, s. 229-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Amyloid-β (Aβ), the key constituent of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) plaques, has antimicrobial properties.Objective: To investigate the association between plasma Aβ and antibodies against the AD-related pathogens herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and C. pneumoniae.Methods: Plasma from 339 AD cases, obtained on average 9.4 years (±4.00) before diagnosis, and their matched controls were analyzed for Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations with Luminex xMAP technology and INNOBIA plasma Aβ-form assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were utilized for analyses of anti-HSV immunoglobulin (Ig) G, anti-HSV1 IgG, anti-HSV2 IgG, anti-CMV IgG, and anti-C. pneumoniae IgG. Follow-up samples were available for 150 of the cases.Results: Presence and levels of anti-HSV1 IgG, anti-HSV2 IgG, anti-CMV IgG, and anti-C. pneumoniae IgG did not correlate with concentrations of Aβ42 or Aβ40 in cases or controls.Conclusion: Levels of plasma Aβ were not associated with antibodies against different AD-related pathogens.
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7.
  • Pandey, Janardan P., et al. (författare)
  • An Ig γ Marker Genotype Is a Strong Risk Factor for Alzheimer Disease, Independent of Apolipoprotein E ε4 Genotype
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Immunology. - : American Association of Immunologists (AAI). - 0022-1767 .- 1550-6606. ; 205:5, s. 1318-1322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing evidence implicates HSV type 1 (HSV1) in the pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). HSV1 has evolved highly sophisticated strategies to evade host immunosurveillance. One strategy involves encoding a decoy Fcγ receptor (FcγR), which blocks Fc-mediated effector functions, such as Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Ig γ marker (GM) allotypes, encoded by highly polymorphic IGHG genes on chromosome 14q32, modulate this immunoevasion strategy, and thus may act as effect modifiers of the HSV1-AD association. In this nested case-control human study, 365 closely matched case-control pairs-whose blood was drawn on average 9.6 y before AD diagnosis-were typed for GM alleles by a TaqMan genotyping assay. APOE genotype and a genetic risk score based on nine additional previously known AD risk genes (ABCA7, BIN1, CD33, CLU, CR1, EPHA1, MS4A4E, NECTIN2, and PICALM) were extracted from a genome-wide association study analysis. Antiviral Abs were measured by ELISA. Conditional logistic regression models were applied. The distribution of GM 3/17 genotypes differed significantly between AD cases and controls, with higher frequency of GM 17/17 homozygotes in AD cases as compared with controls (19.8 versus 10.7%, p = 0.001). The GM 17/17 genotype was associated with a 4-fold increased risk of AD (odds ratio 4.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that Ig GM 17/17 genotype contributes to the risk of later AD development, independent of apolipoprotein ε4 genotype and other AD risk genes, and explain, at least in part, why every HSV1-infected person is not equally likely to develop HSV1-associated AD.
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8.
  • Röhnisch, Hanna E., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of metabolites associated with prostate cancer risk : a nested case-control study with long follow-up in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1741-7015. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Metabolomics can potentially provide new insights into the aetiology of prostate cancer by identifying new metabolic risk factors. This study investigated the prospective association between plasma metabolite concentrations and prostate cancer risk, both overall and by stratifying for disease aggressiveness and baseline age.Methods: In a case-control study nested in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, pre-diagnostic concentrations of 148 plasma metabolites were determined using targeted mass spectrometry- and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics in 777 prostate cancer cases (follow-up >= 5 years) and 777 matched controls. Associations between prostate cancer risk and metabolite concentrations were investigated using conditional logistic regression conditioned on matching factors (body mass index, age and sample storage time). Corrections for multiple testing were performed using false discovery rate (20%) and Bonferroni. Metabolomics analyses generated new hypotheses, which were investigated by leveragingfood frequency questionnaires(FFQs) and oral glucose tolerance tests performed at baseline.Results: After correcting for multiple testing, two lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) were positively associated with risk of overall prostate cancer (all ages and in older subjects). The strongest association was for LPC C17:0 in older subjects (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.45-2.98;p < 0.0001, significant also after the Bonferroni correction). Observed associations with risk of overall prostate cancer in younger subjects were positive for glycine and inverse for pyruvate. For aggressive prostate cancer, there were positive associations with six glycerophospholipids (LPC C17:0, LPC C20:3, LPC C20:4, PC ae C38:3, PC ae C38:4 and PC ae C40:2), while there was an inverse association with acylcarnitine C18:2. Moreover, plasma LPC C17:0 concentrations positively correlated with estimated dietary intake of fatty acid C17:0 from the FFQs. The associations between glycerophospholipids and prostate cancer were stronger in case-controls with normal glucose tolerance.Conclusions: Several glycerophospholipids were positively associated with risk of overall and aggressive prostate cancer. The strongest association was observed for LPC C17:0. The associations between glycerophospholipids and prostate cancer risk were stronger in case-controls with normal glucose tolerance, suggesting a link between the glucose metabolism status and risk of prostate cancer.
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9.
  • Vertosick, Emily A, et al. (författare)
  • Prespecified Four Kallikrein Marker Model (4Kscore) at Age 50 or 60 for Early Detection of Lethal Prostate Cancer in a Large Population-Based Cohort of Asymptomatic Men Followed for 20 Years.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0022-5347 .- 1527-3792. ; 204:2, s. 281-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: A prespecified statistical model based on 4 kallikrein markers in blood, commercially available as the 4Kscore®, has been shown to accurately detect high grade (greater than Grade Group 2) prostate cancer in men with moderately elevated prostate specific antigen. We assessed whether the model predicted prostate cancer metastasis or death in men not subject to prostate specific antigen screening.Materials and Methods: The cohort includes 43,692 unscreened prostate cancer-free men from a Swedish population based cohort with low rates of prostate specific antigen screening (Västerbotten Intervention Project). Using cryopreserved blood collected at ages 50 and 60 years from men in this cohort we analyzed the association between prostate specific antigen and other kallikrein marker levels in blood and risk of prostate cancer metastasis or death.Results: There were 308 with metastases and 172 prostate cancer deaths. Baseline prostate specific antigen was strongly associated with 20-year risk of prostate cancer death (c-index at age 50, 0.859, 95% CI 0.799–0.916; age 60, 0.840, 95% CI 0.799–0.878). Men 60 years old with prostate specific antigen below median (less than 1.2 ng/ml) had 0.4% risk of prostate cancer death at 20 years. Among men with moderately elevated prostate specific antigen (2.0 ng/ml or greater) the 4Kscore markedly improved discrimination (c-index 0.767 vs 0.828 and 0.774 vs 0.862 in men age 50 and 60, respectively). Long-term risk of prostate cancer death or metastasis in men with low 4Kscores was very low.Conclusions: Screening should focus on men in top prostate specific antigen quartile at age 60 years. Men with elevated prostate specific antigen but a low 4Kscore can safely be monitored with repeated blood markers in place of immediate biopsy.
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