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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Held Claes 1956 ) srt2:(2007-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Held Claes 1956 ) > (2007-2009)

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1.
  • Bjorkander, Inge, et al. (författare)
  • Differential Index : A Simple Time Domain Heart Rate Variability Analysis with Prognostic Implications in Stable Angina Pectoris
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cardiology. - 0008-6312 .- 1421-9751. ; 111:2, s. 126-133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To examine the usefulness of time domain heart rate variability (HRV) measurements by a simple graphical method, the differential index (DI), in prognostic assessments of patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. METHODS: HRV measurements in the time domain by DI were compared to conventional measurements of standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), percent of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals >50 ms (PNN50) and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals (RMSSD) from 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings in 678 patients in the Angina Prognosis Study in Stockholm. The patients received double-blind treatment with metoprolol or verapamil. Main outcome measures were cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction during follow-up (median 40 months). RESULTS: Patients suffering cardiovascular death (n = 30) had lower DI, SDNN and PNN50 (all p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, DI below median independently predicted cardiovascular death (p = 0.002), as did SDNN (p = 0.016) and PNN50 (p = 0.030), but not RMSSD (p = 0.10). The separation of survival curves was most pronounced and specificity was slightly better with DI. DI and PNN50 increased with metoprolol but not verapamil treatment. Short-term treatment effects were not related to prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Low time domain HRV carries independent prognostic information regarding cardiovascular death in stable angina pectoris. The simple DI method provided equally good or better prognostic information than conventional, more laborious HRV methods.
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2.
  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma parathyroid hormone and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the community
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 119:21, s. 2765-2771
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Diseases with elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) such as primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and death. However, data on the prospective association between circulating PTH levels and cardiovascular mortality in the community are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM), a community-based cohort of elderly men (mean age, 71 years; n=958), was used to investigate the association between plasma PTH and cardiovascular mortality. During follow-up (median, 9.7 years), 117 participants died of cardiovascular causes. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for established cardiovascular risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antihypertensive treatment, lipid-lowering treatment, and history of cardiovascular disease), higher plasma PTH was associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for 1-SD increase in PTH, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.60; P<0.001). This association remained essentially unaltered in participants without previous cardiovascular disease and in participants with normal PTH (<6.8 pmol/L) with no other signs of a disturbed mineral metabolism (normal serum calcium, 2.2 to 2.6 mmol/L; normal glomerular filtration rate, >50 mL . min(-1) . 1.73 m(-2) and without vitamin D deficiency, plasma 25-OH vitamin D >37.5 nmol/L). Interestingly, elevated plasma PTH (>5.27 pmol/L) accounted for 20% (95% confidence interval, 10 to 26) of the population-attributable risk proportion for cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma PTH levels predict cardiovascular mortality in the community, even in individuals with PTH within the normal range. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical implications of measuring PTH in cardiovascular risk prediction and to elucidate whether PTH is a modifiable risk factor.
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3.
  • Harrington, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRA.CER) trial : study design and rationale
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 158:3, s. 327-334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), the main platelet receptor for thrombin, represents a novel target for treatment of arterial thrombosis, and SCH 530348 is an orally active, selective, competitive PAR-1 antagonist. We designed TRA.CER to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SCH 530348 compared with placebo in addition to standard of care in patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and high-risk features. Trial design TRA.CER is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III trial with an original estimated sample size of 10,000 subjects. Our primary objective is to demonstrate that SCH 530348 in addition to standard of care will reduce the incidence of the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, and urgent coronary revascularization compared with standard of care alone. Our key secondary objective is to determine whether SCH 530348 will reduce the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke compared with standard of care alone. Secondary objectives related to safety are the composite of moderate and severe GUSTO bleeding and clinically significant TIMI bleeding. The trial will continue until a predetermined minimum number of centrally adjudicated primary and key secondary end point events have occurred and all subjects have participated in the study for at least I year. The TRA.CER trial is part of the large phase III SCH 530348 development program that includes a concomitant evaluation in secondary prevention. Conclusion TRA.CER will define efficacy and safety of the novel platelet PAR-1 inhibitor SCH 530348 in the treatment of high-risk patients with NSTE ACS in the setting of current treatment strategies.
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4.
  • Held, Claes, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Correlations between plasma homocysteine and folate concentrations and carotid atherosclerosis in high-risk individuals : baseline data from the Homocysteine and Atherosclerosis Reduction Trial (HART)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Vascular Medicine. - 1358-863X .- 1477-0377. ; 13:4, s. 245-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Homocysteine has been proposed as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The association between plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration and carotid atherosclerosis has not been thoroughly studied in high-risk populations with vascular disease. For this study, carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque calcification in 923 patients with vascular disease or diabetes. Associations with tHcy and plasma folate concentrations were examined. The mean and single maximum carotid IMT were 1.27 +/- 0.34 mm and 2.41 +/- 0.83 mm, respectively. The mean segment plaque calcification score was 27.8%. tHcy correlated with mean (r = 0.13; p < 0.001) and single maximum (r = 0.12; p < 0.001) carotid IMT. There was a progressive increase in mean and single maximum carotid IMT across quartiles of tHcy (p < 0.0001 for trend). These associations were no longer significant after adjusting for other CV risk factors. A trend towards an inverse association between plasma folate and mean max carotid IMT was found in both univariate and multivariable analyses. However, the plaque calcification score increased across quartiles of tHcy (p < 0.01) and decreased across quartiles of plasma folate concentrations (p < 0.05) after multiple adjustments. In conclusion, in high-risk individuals, tHcy and low folate concentrations were only weakly associated with carotid IMT. In contrast, we found an independent association with the plaque calcification score, a measure of more advanced atherosclerosis. The effect of tHcy lowering on carotid atherosclerosis and stroke prevention warrants further investigation.
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5.
  • Lundman, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • A high-fat meal is accompanied by increased plasma interleukin-6 concentrations
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. - 0939-4753 .- 1590-3729. ; 17:3, s. 195-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Enhanced and prolonged postprandial lipaemia is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the mechanisms linking postprandial lipaemia to the increased risk of atherosclerosis and CHD remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a high-fat meal on plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cellular adhesion molecules in CHD patients and control subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-one middle-aged men with premature CHD and 26 healthy male controls were investigated. The plasma triglyceride response to the high-fat meal was significantly greater among cases than controls. The oral fat load induced a twofold increase in plasma concentrations of IL-6, an increase that was similar in CHD patients and control subjects. No changes could be detected in plasma concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules in response to postprandial lipaemia in either CHD patients or control subjects. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that a high-fat meal affects mechanisms that induce increased inflammatory activity, which is recognised as a key modulator in the development of atherosclerosis and CHD. However, the increased levels of plasma IL-6 appear not to be determined by the magnitude of the postprandial triglyceridaemia.
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6.
  • Mann, Johannes F. E., et al. (författare)
  • Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in people with chronic kidney disease : results of the renal Hope-2 study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation. - 0931-0509 .- 1460-2385. ; 23:2, s. 645-653
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are reported to be associated with higher rates of vascular diseases. Plasma homocysteine increases in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and could contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in CKD. METHODS: Participants aged 55 years or older with CKD, defined as estimated GFR<60 ml/min and at high cardiovascular risk, were randomly assigned to the combination of folic acid, 2.5 mg, vitamin B6, 50 mg and vitamin B12, 1 mg (n = 307) or placebo (n = 312) daily for 5 years. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: Mean baseline plasma homocysteine was 15.9 +/- 7.3 micromol/l in the active treatment group and 15.7 +/- 5.7 micromol/l in placebo group and decreased to 11.9 +/- 3.3 micromol/l (P < 0.001) on active treatment (15.5 +/- 4.5 on placebo). Primary outcome events occurred in 90 participants (29.3%) on active therapy and in 80 (25.6%) on placebo (relative risk, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.61; P = 0.25). There were no significant treatment benefits on death from cardiovascular causes (1.24; 0.84-1.83), myocardial infarction (1.10; 0.76-1.61) and stroke (1.00; 0.54-1.85). More participants in the active treatment group were hospitalized for heart failure (1.98; 1.21-3.26; P = 0.007) and for unstable angina (1.70; 1.02-2.83; P = 0.04). Incidence of primary outcome increased with decreasing GFR. CONCLUSIONS: Active treatment with B vitamins lowered homocysteine levels in participants with CKD but did not reduce cardiovascular risk.
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7.
  • Nilsson, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of a web-based ECG-interpretation programme for undergraduate medical students
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Education. - 1472-6920. ; 8, s. 25-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Most clinicians and teachers agree that knowledge about ECG is of importance in the medical curriculum. Students at Karolinska Institute have asked for more training in ECG-interpretation during their undergraduate studies. Clinical tutors, however, have difficulties in meeting these demands due to shortage of time. Thus, alternative ways to learn and practice ECG-interpretation are needed. Education offered via the Internet is readily available, geographically independent and flexible. Furthermore, the quality of education may increase and become more effective through a superior educational approach, improved visualization and interactivity. METHODS: A Web-based comprehensive ECG-interpretation programme has been evaluated. Medical students from the sixth semester were given an optional opportunity to access the programme from the start of their course. Usage logs and an initial evaluation survey were obtained from each student. A diagnostic test was performed in order to assess the effect on skills in ECG interpretation. Students from the corresponding course, at another teaching hospital and without access to the ECG-programme but with conventional teaching of ECG served as a control group. RESULTS: 20 of the 32 students in the intervention group had tested the programme after 2 months. On a five-graded scale (1- bad to 5 - very good) they ranked the utility of a web-based programme for this purpose as 4.1 and the quality of the programme software as 3.9. At the diagnostic test (maximal points 16) by the end of the 5-month course at the 6th semester the mean result for the students in the intervention group was 9.7 compared with 8.1 for the control group (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Students ranked the Web-based ECG-interpretation programme as a useful instrument to learn ECG. Furthermore, Internet-delivered education may be more effective than traditional teaching methods due to greater immediacy, improved visualisation and interactivity.
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8.
  • Paulsson, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • In vivo Extravasated Human Monocytes have an Altered Expression of CD16, HLA-DR, CD86, CD36 and CX(3)CR1
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - 0300-9475 .- 1365-3083. ; 70:4, s. 368-376
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The phenotypic alterations in monocytes induced by extravasation in vivo are still largely unknown. We addressed the question whether a general phenotype of extravasated monocytes exists and whether this phenotype differs between healthy individuals and statin treated patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In vivo extravasated monocytes from CAD patients and healthy controls were collected by use of the skin blister method and compared with peripheral circulating monocytes by flow cytometry. The number of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes were significantly higher in the skin blister compared with peripheral circulation in both patients (P < 0.001) and controls (P = 0.005). In vivo extravasated monocytes had in comparison with peripheral monocytes a lower expression Of CX(3)CR1, a higher expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and CD36 and a higher binding of acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL) (significant for all markers). Skin blister fluid from CAD patients, compared with healthy controls, induced a 206 increase in monocyte CD36 expression (P = 0.008) following 18 h of in vitro incubation The results indicate that the integrated. response to the in vivo extravasation process is similar in statin treated stable CAD patients and healthy controls, with respect to phenotypic alterations. Such differences in CAD patients may, however, occur as a response to the inflammatory milieu.
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9.
  • Wallentin, Lars, 1943-, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 361:11, s. 1045-1057
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor is an oral, reversible, direct-acting inhibitor of the adenosine diphosphate receptor P2Y12 that has a more rapid onset and more pronounced platelet inhibition than clopidogrel. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter) and clopidogrel (300-to-600-mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter) for the prevention of cardiovascular events in 18,624 patients admitted to the hospital with an acute coronary syndrome, with or without ST-segment elevation. RESULTS: At 12 months, the primary end point--a composite of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke--had occurred in 9.8% of patients receiving ticagrelor as compared with 11.7% of those receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.92; P<0.001). Predefined hierarchical testing of secondary end points showed significant differences in the rates of other composite end points, as well as myocardial infarction alone (5.8% in the ticagrelor group vs. 6.9% in the clopidogrel group, P=0.005) and death from vascular causes (4.0% vs. 5.1%, P=0.001) but not stroke alone (1.5% vs. 1.3%, P=0.22). The rate of death from any cause was also reduced with ticagrelor (4.5%, vs. 5.9% with clopidogrel; P<0.001). No significant difference in the rates of major bleeding was found between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups (11.6% and 11.2%, respectively; P=0.43), but ticagrelor was associated with a higher rate of major bleeding not related to coronary-artery bypass grafting (4.5% vs. 3.8%, P=0.03), including more instances of fatal intracranial bleeding and fewer of fatal bleeding of other types. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who have an acute coronary syndrome with or without ST-segment elevation, treatment with ticagrelor as compared with clopidogrel significantly reduced the rate of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke without an increase in the rate of overall major bleeding but with an increase in the rate of non-procedure-related bleeding.
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