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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Higgins Scott N.) srt2:(2015-2019)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Higgins Scott N.) > (2015-2019)

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2.
  • Tiegs, Scott D., et al. (författare)
  • Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - Washington : American Association of Advancement in Science. - 2375-2548. ; 5:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.
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3.
  • Hampton, Stephanie E., et al. (författare)
  • Ecology under lake ice
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology Letters. - 1461-023X .- 1461-0248. ; 20:1, s. 98-111
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass.
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4.
  • O’Reilly, Catherine M., et al. (författare)
  • Rapid and highly variable warming of lake surface waters around the globe
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 42:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this first worldwide synthesis of in situ and satellite-derived lake data, we find that lake summer surface water temperatures rose rapidly (global mean = 0.34°C decade−1) between 1985 and 2009. Our analyses show that surface water warming rates are dependent on combinations of climate and local characteristics, rather than just lake location, leading to the counterintuitive result that regional consistency in lake warming is the exception, rather than the rule. The most rapidly warming lakes are widely geographically distributed, and their warming is associated with interactions among different climatic factors—from seasonally ice-covered lakes in areas where temperature and solar radiation are increasing while cloud cover is diminishing (0.72°C decade−1) to ice-free lakes experiencing increases in air temperature and solar radiation (0.53°C decade−1). The pervasive and rapid warming observed here signals the urgent need to incorporate climate impacts into vulnerability assessments and adaptation efforts for lakes.
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5.
  • Sharma, Sapna, et al. (författare)
  • A global database of lake surface temperatures collected by in situ and satellite methods from 1985–2009
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Macmillan Publishers Limited. - 2052-4463. ; 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global environmental change has influenced lake surface temperatures, a key driver of ecosystem structure and function. Recent studies have suggested significant warming of water temperatures in individual lakes across many different regions around the world. However, the spatial and temporal coherence associated with the magnitude of these trends remains unclear. Thus, a global data set of water temperature is required to understand and synthesize global, long-term trends in surface water temperatures of inland bodies of water. We assembled a database of summer lake surface temperatures for 291 lakes collected in situ and/or by satellites for the period 1985–2009. In addition, corresponding climatic drivers (air temperatures, solar radiation, and cloud cover) and geomorphometric characteristics (latitude, longitude, elevation, lake surface area, maximum depth, mean depth, and volume) that influence lake surface temperatures were compiled for each lake. This unique dataset offers an invaluable baseline perspective on global-scale lake thermal conditions as environmental change continues.
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6.
  • Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A., et al. (författare)
  • Widespread diminishing anthropogenic effects on calcium in freshwaters
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Calcium (Ca) is an essential element for almost all living organisms. Here, we examined global variation and controls of freshwater Ca concentrations, using 440 599 water samples from 43 184 inland water sites in 57 countries. We found that the global median Ca concentration was 4.0 mg L-1 with 20.7% of the water samples showing Ca concentrations <= 1.5 mg L-1, a threshold considered critical for the survival of many Ca-demanding organisms. Spatially, freshwater Ca concentrations were strongly and proportionally linked to carbonate alkalinity, with the highest Ca and carbonate alkalinity in waters with a pH around 8.0 and decreasing in concentrations towards lower pH. However, on a temporal scale, by analyzing decadal trends in > 200 water bodies since the 1980s, we observed a frequent decoupling between carbonate alkalinity and Ca concentrations, which we attributed mainly to the influence of anthropogenic acid deposition. As acid deposition has been ameliorated, in many freshwaters carbonate alkalinity concentrations have increased or remained constant, while Ca concentrations have rapidly declined towards or even below pre-industrial conditions as a consequence of recovery from anthropogenic acidification. Thus, a paradoxical outcome of the successful remediation of acid deposition is a globally widespread freshwater Ca concentration decline towards critically low levels for many aquatic organisms.
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7.
  • Wu, X. N., et al. (författare)
  • Increased EZH2 expression in prostate cancer is associated with metastatic recurrence following external beam radiotherapy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Prostate. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0270-4137. ; 79:10, s. 1079-1089
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) promotes prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that increased EZH2 expression is associated with postradiotherapy metastatic disease recurrence, and may promote radioresistance. Methods EZH2 expression was investigated using immunohistochemistry in diagnostic prostate biopsies of 113 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with curative intent. Associations between EZH2 expression in malignant and benign tissue in prostate biopsy cores and outcomes were investigated using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. LNCaP and PC3 cell radiosensitivity was investigated using colony formation and gamma H2AX assays following UNC1999 chemical probe-mediated EZH2 inhibition. Results While there was no significant association between EZH2 expression and biochemical recurrence following radiotherapy, univariate analysis revealed that prostate cancer cytoplasmic and total EZH2 expression were significantly associated with metastasis development postradiotherapy (P = 0.034 and P = 0.003, respectively). On multivariate analysis, the prostate cancer total EZH2 expression score remained statistically significant (P = 0.003), while cytoplasmic EZH2 expression did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.053). No association was observed between normal adjacent prostate EZH2 expression and biochemical recurrence or metastasis. LNCaP and PC3 cell treatment with UNC1999 reduced histone H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation levels. Irradiation of LNCaP or PC3 cells with a single 2 Gy fraction with UNC1999-mediated EZH2 inhibition resulted in a statistically significant, though modest, reduction in cell colony number for both cell lines. Increased gamma H2AX foci were observed 24 hours after ionizing irradiation in LNCaP cells, but not in PC3, following UNC1999-mediated EZH2 inhibition vs controls. Conclusions Taken together, these results reveal that high pretreatment EZH2 expression in prostate cancer in diagnostic biopsies is associated with an increased risk of postradiotherapy metastatic disease recurrence, but EZH2 function may only at most play a modest role in promoting prostate cancer cell radioresistance.
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