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1.
  • Janson, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Insomnia associated with traffic noise and proximity to traffic : a cross-sectional study of the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe III population
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM). - : American Academy of Sleep Medicine. - 1550-9389 .- 1550-9397. ; 16:4, s. 545-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Objectives: Exposure to traffic noise increases the risk of sleeping disturbance, but little is known about the effect of traffic-related air pollution on insomnia symptoms. We aimed to investigate the separate associations of self-reported proximity to traffic and traffic noise with insomnia.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of the population included in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe study, consisting of randomly selected men and women born between 1945 and 1973, from 7 Northern European centers. Hearing traffic noise in the bedroom, bedroom window proximity to traffic, and insomnia symptoms were self-reported. Bedroom window proximity to traffic was used as a surrogate for exposure to traffic-related air pollution. The following insomnia symptoms were assessed: difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening.Results: A total of 12,963 individuals was included. Traffic noise was positively associated with all three insomnia symptoms: difficulty initiating sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 3.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.85, 6.76), difficulty maintaining sleep (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.62, 5.37), and early morning awakening (OR = 3.25; 95% CI: 1.97, 5.37). Proximity to traffic without disturbing noise was associated with difficulty initiating sleep (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.45, 1.82).Conclusions: This study adds further support to the identification of traffic noise as a risk factor for insomnia. Proximity to traffic without being exposed to noise was associated with an increased risk of difficulty initiating sleep. Our findings indicate that insomnia may be associated with both traffic noise and traffic-related air pollution.
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2.
  • Svanes, C., et al. (författare)
  • Cohort profile: the multigeneration Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) cohort
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Bmj Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055. ; 12:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) cohort was established to (1) investigate how exposures before conception and in previous generations influence health and disease, particularly allergies and respiratory health, (2) identify susceptible time windows and (3) explore underlying mechanisms. The ultimate aim is to facilitate efficient intervention strategies targeting multiple generations. Participants RHINESSA includes study participants of multiple generations from ten study centres in Norway (1), Denmark (1), Sweden (3), Iceland (1), Estonia (1), Spain (2) and Australia (1). The RHINESSA core cohort, adult offspring generation 3 (G3), was first investigated in 2014-17 in a questionnaire study (N=8818, age 18-53 years) and a clinical study (subsample, n=1405). Their G2 parents participated in the population-based cohorts, European Community Respiratory Heath Survey and Respiratory Health In Northern Europe, followed since the early 1990s when they were 20-44 years old, at 8-10 years intervals. Study protocols are harmonised across generations. Findings to date Collected data include spirometry, skin prick tests, exhaled nitric oxide, anthropometrics, bioimpedance, blood pressure; questionnaire/interview data on respiratory/general/reproductive health, indoor/outdoor environment, smoking, occupation, general characteristics and lifestyle; biobanked blood, urine, gingival fluid, skin swabs; measured specific and total IgE, DNA methylation, sex hormones and oral microbiome. Research results suggest that parental environment years before conception, in particular, father's exposures such as smoking and overweight, may be of key importance for asthma and lung function, and that there is an important susceptibility window in male prepuberty. Statistical analyses developed to approach causal inference suggest that these associations may be causal. DNA methylation studies suggest a mechanism for transfer of father's exposures to offspring health and disease through impact on offspring DNA methylation. Future plans Follow-up is planned at 5-8 years intervals, first in 2021-2023. Linkage with health registries contributes to follow-up of the cohort.
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3.
  • Zuberbier, T., et al. (författare)
  • Proposal of 0.5 mg of protein/100 g of processed food as threshold for voluntary declaration of food allergen traces in processed food-A first step in an initiative to better inform patients and avoid fatal allergic reactions: A GA(2)LEN position paper
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Allergy. - : Wiley. - 0105-4538 .- 1398-9995. ; 77:6, s. 1736-1750
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Food anaphylaxis is commonly elicited by unintentional ingestion of foods containing the allergen above the tolerance threshold level of the individual. While labeling the 14 main allergens used as ingredients in food products is mandatory in the EU, there is no legal definition of declaring potential contaminants. Precautionary allergen labeling such as "may contain traces of" is often used. However, this is unsatisfactory for consumers as they get no information if the contamination is below their personal threshold. In discussions with the food industry and technologists, it was suggested to use a voluntary declaration indicating that all declared contaminants are below a threshold of 0.5 mg protein per 100 g of food. This concentration is known to be below the threshold of most patients, and it can be technically guaranteed in most food production. However, it was also important to assess that in case of accidental ingestion of contaminants below this threshold by highly allergic patients, no fatal anaphylactic reaction could occur. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to assess whether a fatal reaction to 5mg of protein or less has been reported, assuming that a maximum portion size of 1kg of a processed food exceeds any meal and thus gives a sufficient safety margin. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched until 24 January 2021 for provocation studies and case reports in which one of the 14 major food allergens was reported to elicit fatal or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and assessed if these occurred below the ingestion of 5mg of protein. A Delphi process was performed to obtain an expert consensus on the results. Results In the 210 studies included, in our search, no reports of fatal anaphylactic reactions reported below 5 mg protein ingested were identified. However, in provocation studies and case reports, severe reactions below 5 mg were reported for the following allergens: eggs, fish, lupin, milk, nuts, peanuts, soy, and sesame seeds. Conclusion Based on the literature studied for this review, it can be stated that cross-contamination of the 14 major food allergens below 0.5 mg/100 g is likely not to endanger most food allergic patients when a standard portion of food is consumed. We propose to use the statement "this product contains the named allergens in the list of ingredients, it may contain traces of other contaminations (to be named, e.g. nut) at concentrations less than 0.5 mg per 100 g of this product" for a voluntary declaration on processed food packages. This level of avoidance of cross-contaminations can be achieved technically for most processed foods, and the statement would be a clear and helpful message to the consumers. However, it is clearly acknowledged that a voluntary declaration is only a first step to a legally binding solution. For this, further research on threshold levels is encouraged.
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4.
  • Accordini, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence trends of airflow obstruction among European adults without asthma : a 20-year cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigating COPD trends may help healthcare providers to forecast future disease burden. We estimated sex- and smoking-specific incidence trends of pre-bronchodilator airflow obstruction (AO) among adults without asthma from 11 European countries within a 20-year follow-up (ECRHS and SAPALDIA cohorts). We also quantified the extent of misclassification in the definition based on pre-bronchodilator spirometry (using post-bronchodilator measurements from a subsample of subjects) and we used this information to estimate the incidence of post-bronchodilator AO (AO(post-BD)), which is the primary characteristic of COPD. AO incidence was 4.4 (95% CI: 3.5-5.3) male and 3.8 (3.1-4.6) female cases/1,000/year. Among ever smokers (median pack-years: 20, males; 12, females), AO incidence significantly increased with ageing in men only [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1-year increase: 1.05 (1.03-1.07)]. A strong exposure-response relationship with smoking was found both in males [IRR, 1-pack-year increase: 1.03 (1.02-1.04)] and females [1.03 (1.02-1.05)]. The positive predictive value of AO for AO(post-BD) was 59.1% (52.0-66.2%) in men and 42.6% (35.1-50.1%) in women. AO(post-BD) incidence was 2.6 (1.7-3.4) male and 1.6 (1.0-2.2) female cases/1,000/year. AO incidence was considerable in Europe and the sex-specific ageing-related increase among ever smokers was strongly related to cumulative tobacco exposure. AO(post-BD) incidence is expected to be half of AO incidence.
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5.
  • Accordini, S., et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal and prepubertal exposures to tobacco smoke in men may cause lower lung function in future offspring: a three-generation study using a causal modelling approach
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society (ERS). - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 58:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanistic research suggests that lifestyle and environmental factors impact respiratory health across generations by epigenetic changes transmitted through male germ cells. Evidence from studies on humans is very limited. We investigated multigeneration causal associations to estimate the causal effects of tobacco smoking on lung function within the paternal line. We analysed data from 383 adult offspring (age 18-47 years; 52.0% female) and their 274 fathers, who had participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS)/Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study and had provided valid measures of pre-bronchodilator lung function. Two counterfactual-based, multilevel mediation models were developed with: paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy and fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty as exposures; fathers' forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), or FEV1/FVC z-scores as potential mediators (proxies of unobserved biological mechanisms that are true mediators); and offspring's FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as outcomes. All effects were summarised as differences (Delta) in expected z-scores related to fathers' and grandmothers' smoking history. Fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty had a negative direct effect on both offspring's FEV1 (Delta z-score -0.36, 95% CI -0.63--0.10) and FVC (-0.50, 95% CI -0.80--0.20) compared with fathers' never smoking. Paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy had a negative direct effect on fathers' FEV1/FVC -0.57, 95% CI -1.09--0.05) and a negative indirect effect on offspring's FEV1/FVC (-0.12, 95% CI -0.21--0.03) compared with grandmothers' not smoking before fathers' birth nor during fathers' childhood. Fathers' smoking in prepuberty and paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy may cause lower lung function in offspring. Our results support the concept that lifestyle-related exposures during these susceptibility periods influence the health of future generations.
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6.
  • Ahmadi, Zainab, et al. (författare)
  • Agreement of the modified Medical Research Council and New York Heart Association scales for assessing the impact of self-rated breathlessness in cardiopulmonary disease
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : European Respiratory Society. - 2312-0541. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The functional impact of breathlessness is assessed using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale for chronic respiratory disease and with the New York Heart Association Functional Classification (NYHA) scale for heart failure. We evaluated agreement between the scales and their concurrent validity with other clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes in cardiorespiratory disease.Methods: Outpatients with stable chronic respiratory disease or heart failure were recruited. Agreement between the mMRC and NYHA scales was analysed using Cramér's V and Kendall's tau B tests. Concurrent validity was evaluated using correlations with clinically relevant measures of breathlessness, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Analyses were conducted for all participants and separately in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure.Results: In a total of 182 participants with cardiorespiratory disease, the agreement between the mMRC and NYHA scales was moderate (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.57) with similar results for COPD (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.66) and heart failure (Cramér's V: 0.46; Kendall's tau B: 0.67). In the total population, the scales correlated in similar ways to other patient-reported outcomes.Conclusion: In outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease, the mMRC and NYHA scales show moderate to strong correlations and similar associations with other patient-reported outcomes. This supports that the scales are comparable when assessing the impact of breathlessness on function and patient-reported outcomes.
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7.
  • Amaral, Andre F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Chronic airflow obstruction and ambient particulate air pollution
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 76:12, s. 1236-1241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is the most well-established cause of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) but particulate air pollution and poverty have also been implicated. We regressed sex-specific prevalence of CAO from 41 Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study sites against smoking prevalence from the same study, the gross national income per capita and the local annual mean level of ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) using negative binomial regression. The prevalence of CAO was not independently associated with PM2.5 but was strongly associated with smoking and was also associated with poverty. Strengthening tobacco control and improved understanding of the link between CAO and poverty should be prioritised.
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8.
  • Amaral, Rita, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of individual characteristics and non-respiratory diseases on blood eosinophil count
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Translational Allergy. - 2045-7022 .- 2045-7022. ; 11:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundBlood eosinophil (B-Eos) count is an emerging biomarker in the management of respiratory disease but determinants of B-Eos count besides respiratory disease are poorly described. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the influence of non-respiratory diseases on B-Eos count, in comparison to the effect on two other biomarkers: fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and C-reactive protein (CRP), and to identify individual characteristics associated with B-Eos count in healthy controls.MethodsChildren/adolescents (<18 years) and adults with complete B-Eos data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys 2005–2016 were included, and they were divided into having respiratory diseases (n = 3333 and n = 7,894, respectively) or not having respiratory disease (n = 8944 and n = 15,010, respectively). After excluding any respiratory disease, the association between B-Eos count, FeNO or CRP, and non-respiratory diseases was analyzed in multivariate models and multicollinearity was tested. After excluding also non-respiratory diseases independently associated with B-Eos count (giving healthy controls; 8944 children/adolescents and 5667 adults), the independent association between individual characteristics and B-Eos count was analyzed.ResultsIn adults, metabolic syndrome, heart disease or stroke was independently associated with higher B-Eos count (12%, 13%, and 15%, respectively), whereas no associations were found with FeNO or CRP. In healthy controls, male sex or being obese was associated with higher B-Eos counts, both in children/adolescents (15% and 3% higher, respectively) and adults (14% and 19% higher, respectively) (p < 0.01 all). A significant influence of race/ethnicity was also noted, and current smokers had 17% higher B-Eos count than never smokers (p < 0.001).ConclusionsNon-respiratory diseases influence B-Eos count but not FeNO or CRP. Male sex, obesity, certain races/ethnicities, and current smoking are individual characteristics or exposures that are associated with higher B-Eos counts. All these factors should be considered when using B-Eos count in the management of respiratory disease.
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9.
  • Amid Hägg, Shadi, et al. (författare)
  • Smokers with insomnia symptoms are less likely to stop smoking
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0954-6111 .- 1532-3064. ; 170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Smoking is associated with sleep disturbances. The aim of this study was to analyze whether sleep disturbances are predictors of smoking cessation and whether continued smoking is associated with the development of sleep disturbances. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to randomly selected men and women in Northern Europe in 1999-2001 (RHINE II) and was followed up by a questionnaire in 2010-2012 (RHINE III). The study population consisted of 2568 participants who were smokers at baseline and provided data on smoking at follow-up. Insomnia symptoms were defined as having difficulty initiating and/or maintaining sleep and/or early morning awakening >= 3 nights/week. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR). Results: Subjects with difficulty initiating sleep (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.6; 0.4-0.8), difficulty maintaining sleep (0.7; 0.5-0.9), early morning awakening (0.6; 0.4-0.8), any insomnia symptom (0.6; 0.5-0.8) or excessive daytime sleepiness (0.7; 0.5-0.8) were less likely to achieve long-term smoking cessation after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years, hypertension, diabetes, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, asthma, gender and BMI difference. There was no significant association between snoring and smoking cessation. In subjects without sleep disturbance at baseline, continued smoking increased the risk of developing difficulty initiating sleep during the follow-up period compared with those that had quit smoking (adj. OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Conclusions: Insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness negatively predict smoking cessation. Smoking is a risk factor for the development of difficulty initiating sleep. Treatment for sleep disturbances should be included in smoking-cessation programs.
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10.
  • Amid Hägg, Shadi, et al. (författare)
  • The negative health effects of having a combination of snoring and insomnia
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SLEEP MEDICINE. - : American Academy of Sleep Medicine. - 1550-9389 .- 1550-9397. ; 18:4, s. 973-981
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Objectives: Insomnia and snoring are common sleep disorders. The aim was to investigate the association of having a combination of insomnia symptoms and snoring with comorbidity and daytime sleepiness. Methods: The study population comprised 25,901 participants (16-75 years, 54.4% women) from 4 Swedish cities, who answered a postal questionnaire that contained questions on snoring, insomnia symptoms (difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep and/or early morning awakening), smoking, educational level, and respiratory and nonrespiratory disorders. Results: Snoring was reported by 4,221 (16.2%), while 9,872 (38.1%) reported 1 insomnia symptom. A total of 2,150 (8.3%) participants reported both insomnia symptoms and snoring. The association with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.2-1.6), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4), asthma (adjusted OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.6-2.3), daytime sleepiness (adjusted OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 7.1-8.8), and the use of hypnotics (adjusted OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 6.1-9.1) was highest for the group with both insomnia symptoms and snoring. Conclusions: Participants with both snoring and insomnia run an increased risk of hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, daytime sleepiness, and use of hypnotics. It is important to consider snoring in patients seeking medical assistance for insomnia and, vice versa, in patients with snoring inquiring about insomnia.
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